Australia City Codes

Australia, the world’s sixth-largest country, is a land of diverse landscapes, unique wildlife, and rich cultural heritage. From its ancient Aboriginal roots to modern multicultural society, Australia offers a fascinating tapestry of experiences for both residents and visitors alike. In this comprehensive guide, we explore the various aspects that make Australia an extraordinary nation.

Australia is located in the southern hemisphere, comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is surrounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and south, the Pacific Ocean to the east, and the Timor, Arafura, and Coral Seas to the north.



Australia’s climate varies widely across its vast expanse. The northern regions experience a tropical climate with wet and dry seasons, while the southern regions have a temperate climate with distinct four seasons. The central regions are arid and semi-arid, characterized by vast deserts such as the famous Outback.


Australia is renowned for its unique and diverse wildlife, much of which is found nowhere else on Earth. Iconic species include kangaroos, koalas, platypuses, and wombats. The country is also home to a myriad of bird species, reptiles, and marine life, including the Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef system.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Australia is the Murray River, stretching approximately 2,508 kilometers (1,558 miles) across southeastern Australia. Other major rivers include the Darling, the Murrumbidgee, and the Lachlan.

Highest Mountains

Australia’s highest peak is Mount Kosciuszko, standing at 2,228 meters (7,310 feet) above sea level. Located in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales, Mount Kosciuszko is part of the Australian Alps, a mountain range renowned for its stunning alpine scenery.



Australia’s Indigenous peoples, known as Aboriginal Australians, have inhabited the continent for over 65,000 years. They have a rich cultural heritage, with diverse languages, art forms, and spiritual beliefs. Aboriginal communities have maintained a deep connection to the land, living in harmony with nature for millennia.

European Settlement

The arrival of British settlers in 1788 marked the beginning of European colonization in Australia. The British established a penal colony at Port Jackson (now Sydney) in New South Wales, leading to the displacement and marginalization of Indigenous peoples. Convicts were sent to Australia as punishment for crimes, contributing to the early colonial population.

Federation and Nationhood

Australia achieved federation in 1901, uniting six British colonies into a single nation under the Commonwealth of Australia. The new nation adopted a democratic system of government, with a constitution that enshrined principles of federalism, separation of powers, and individual rights. Over the years, Australia has evolved into a vibrant multicultural society, with immigration playing a significant role in shaping its demographic landscape.

Modern Age

In the modern era, Australia has become a prosperous and multicultural society, known for its commitment to democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. It has forged strong ties with countries around the world through trade, diplomacy, and cultural exchange. However, challenges remain, including issues related to Indigenous rights, environmental conservation, and social inequality.


Australia has a population of approximately 25.7 million people, with the majority living in urban centers along the eastern and southern coasts. The population is culturally diverse, with significant contributions from immigrants hailing from Europe, Asia, and other parts of the world. English is the primary language spoken, but Australia is also home to numerous Indigenous languages and ethnic communities.

Administrative Divisions

Australia is divided into six states and two territories:


  1. New South Wales – Population: 8,166,338
  2. Victoria – Population: 6,668,307
  3. Queensland – Population: 5,205,646
  4. Western Australia – Population: 2,666,917
  5. South Australia – Population: 1,769,116
  6. Tasmania – Population: 541,965


  1. Australian Capital Territory – Population: 431,114
  2. Northern Territory – Population: 245,847

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Sydney
  2. Melbourne
  3. Brisbane
  4. Perth
  5. Adelaide
  6. Gold Coast
  7. Canberra
  8. Newcastle
  9. Central Coast
  10. Wollongong

Education Systems

Education in Australia is primarily the responsibility of the states and territories. Public education is provided by government schools, which offer free primary and secondary education to all Australian citizens and permanent residents. Australia is also home to several top universities, including the University of Melbourne, Australian National University, and University of Sydney, which consistently rank among the world’s best.



Australia has numerous airports, with major international airports located in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. The busiest airport is Sydney Kingsford Smith Airport, serving as a major hub for domestic and international flights.


Australia has an extensive railway network, with passenger and freight services operating across the country. The Trans-Australian Railway, spanning over 4,000 kilometers, connects Perth in Western Australia to Sydney in New South Wales.


Australia has a well-developed highway system, with major routes such as the Pacific Highway, the Great Western Highway, and the Hume Highway linking key cities and regions. The total length of Australia’s road network exceeds 800,000 kilometers.


Australia has several major ports, including Port of Brisbane, Port of Melbourne, Port of Fremantle, Port of Sydney, and Port of Adelaide. These ports facilitate trade and transportation of goods to and from Australia’s coastal cities.

Country Facts

  • Population: 25.7 million
  • Capital: Canberra
  • Language: English
  • Religion: Christianity (predominantly Catholic and Protestant)
  • Race: Diverse, with significant European, Asian, and Indigenous populations
  • Currency: Australian dollar (AUD)
  • ISO Country Code: AU
  • International Calling Code: +61
  • Top-level Domain: .au