In the run-up to the presidential and parliamentary elections on March 29, 2008, the MDC’s election campaign was massively obstructed by Zanu-PF veterans’ associations. After a delay, it became known in April 2008 that the ZANU-PF had not been able to win a majority in the parliamentary elections. The Mugabe regime delayed announcing the results of the presidential elections, while the security forces committed numerous acts of violence against opposition politicians. Finally, the electoral commission announced that opposition leader Tsvangirai had won the most votes in the first ballot, but had missed the absolute majority required. For this reason, a run-off election for the office of president was scheduled for June 27, 2008. Because of the intensified campaign of violence by the regime, Tsvangirai moved withdrew his candidacy for the runoff election on June 22, 2008 in order to protect his supporters from state repression. Despite domestic and foreign criticism, Mugabe had the election carried out and, according to official information, received around 85.5% of the vote. On June 29, 2008 he was sworn in again as President. See watchtutorials for economy and history of Zimbabwe.
After difficult negotiations with South African mediation, the government and opposition signed a power-sharing agreement on September 15, 2008. After months of dispute over the division of ministerial posts between ZANU-PF and MDC, M. Tsvangirai became finally on February 11, 2009 Prime Minister at the head of a government of national unity. Previously, on February 5, 2009, Parliament had unanimously passed a constitutional amendment that created the previously unintended position of prime minister. In the meantime, a nationwide cholera epidemic had worsened the economic crisis. With a new currency regime (de facto replacement of the Zimbabwean dollar by the US dollar and the South African rand), the government managed to contain hyperinflation in 2009/10. Work on a new draft constitution in 2010/11 was overshadowed by the continuing potential for conflict between the Mugabe and Tsvangirai camps. On 16./17. 3. In 2013 there was finally a referendum on the new constitution. According to the electoral commission, the draft constitution, which includes a. a strengthening of the rights of the parliament as well as a term limit for the president included, an approval of approx. 94.5% of the votes. The ZANU-PF was able to enforce the previous terms of office Mugabes were not counted. This made it possible for the long-time ruler to run for president again. The new constitution came into force on May 22, 2013. On July 31, 2013, presidential and parliamentary elections were held, which were accompanied by numerous irregularities and manipulations. According to the electoral commission, Mugabe was able to prevail in the presidential elections with around 61% of the vote. To M. Tsvangirai after 34% of the votes accounted for approx.. The ZANU-PF won 158 of the 210 seats in the National Assembly and thus secured a two-thirds majority. Tsvangirais MDC party lost 51 of their 100 seats so far. On August 21, 2013, the Constitutional Court upheld the election result, which the opposition had called into question. Mugabe was sworn in as President for the seventh time on August 22, 2013 at Harare Stadium.
In December 2014, Mugabe fired Vice President Joice Mujuru (* 1955) , who had long been considered his possible successor, and other cabinet members. The president had previously appointed his wife Grace Mugabe (* 1965) chairman of his party’s women’s league, which observers saw as an attempt to make her his successor. E. Mnangagwa was appointed the new First Vice-President, Phelekezela Mphoko (* 1940) as the Second Vice-President. The expelled from the ruling party Mujuru founded the opposition party Zimbabwe People First (ZimPF) in 2015. The government declared a state of emergency on February 5, 2016 due to crop failures due to a persistent drought. A large part of the population was dependent on food aid. Protests and demonstrations against the regime, reinforced by social media, expanded in the period that followed. Pastor Evan Mawarire advanced to become a leader in the resistance who called for a general strike at the beginning of July 2016 under the hashtag »MyFlag«. The security forces often used violence against opponents of the government. The central bank reacted to the shortage of foreign currencies in use since 2009 by introducing bonds as a means of payment. The measure aggravated the social situation further. However, his party confirmed Mugabe as a candidate for the 2018 presidential election in December 2016. In early February 2017, Evan Mawarire , who had been abroad for security reasons since July 2016, was arrested at Harare airport on his return and charged with subversion.
In November 2017, Mugabe dismissed First Vice President Mnangagwa, who had strong military backing, on charges of disloyalty . This intensified internal political tensions and existing differences in the government camp. Against this background, the army announced on November 15, 2017 that it would temporarily take control of Zimbabwe. The ZANU-PF Central Committee deposed Mugabe as party leader on November 19, 2017 and appointed Mnangagwa as his successor. In view of the impending impeachment by parliament, Mugabe finally announced his resignation as President on November 21, 2017. The solemn inauguration of the new head of state Mnangagwa took place on November 24, 2017 at the National Sports Stadium in Harare. In the presidential elections on July 30, 2018, Mnangagwa officially prevailed against Nelson Chamisa (* 1978) with 50.8% of the vote ; the successor to Tsvangirai, who died in February 2018, at the head of the MDC alliance (until then MDC-T) came to 44.3%. The ZANU-PF secured a two-thirds majority in the National Assembly. Protests by MDC supporters in Harare against buying votes, as well as manipulation of voter registration and counting, were put down by security forces.