Turkey Area Code

+90 is the dialing code for Turkey.

Great Turkey is the bridge between Europe and Asia. Where the Mediterranean meets the Black Sea, the old cultural city of Istanbul is strategically located on two continents. Most of the country belongs to West Asia, but Turkey counts for Europe. However, the wait for EU membership seems to be long. Turkish politics is characterized by a power struggle between secular state ideology Kemalism and the ruling Islamist Conservative Party AKP. During the 2010s, the AKP has emerged as increasingly authoritarian and democracy has eroded.

  • Abbreviationfinder: Brief profiles of Turkey, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.

Geography and climate

Turkey Area Code

On the surface, Turkey is slightly larger than Sweden and Norway together. The country is usually considered to be Europe, although it is mostly in West Asia. The traditional border between the continents goes straight through the big city of Istanbul.

Turkey’s core country – the peninsula of Anatolia, also called Asia Minor – protrudes from the Asian continent in the direction of Europe, between the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south.

  • Beautypically: General information about Turkey, covering geography, climate, travel tips and popular sights.

The Black Sea and the Mediterranean are connected by two narrow channels, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, as well as the intermediate Lake Marmara. The Sound forms a natural border between Anatolia and the small European part of Turkey in the Balkans. By the Bosphorus lies Turkey’s largest city, Istanbul, formerly called Constantinople and before that Byzantion, or Byzantium. The city was built on the European side, but now covers a large area on both sides of the strait. The capital Ankara is located in the inland of Anatolia.

Country Facts


Cultivated land 49.7 %
Land area 783562 km 2

Population and health

Population development 1.26 ‰
Urban population (Urbanization) 73.4 %
Death rate 5.88 per 1000 residents
Life expectancy: Women 77 years
Life expectancy: Men 72.26 years
Birth rate 16.33 births per 1000 residents
HDI index 0.761
Population 79414269
Infant mortality 18.87 deaths / 1000 births

Population Graph Source: Countryaah.com


Electricity, production 228300 million kWh
Energy consumption per resident 1546.1 kg. oil per resident
Natural gas, production 476 million cubic meters
Crude oil, production million tons


Internet users 46.6 per 100 residents
Mobile subscriptions 92 per 100 residents
Passenger cars 144 per 1000 residents

Business and economics

Unemployment 10.4% of the workforce
GDP 20400 per resident
Primary occupations 25.5 %
Secondary profession 26.2 %
Tertiary professions 48.4 %

Irregular mountain ranges cut in all directions through the landscape which has an average elevation of about 1000 meters. However, on the coast towards the Aegean Sea to the west and the eastern part of the Mediterranean there are also large, fertile lowland areas. The highest mountains are to the east, including the more than 5,000 meters high Ararat, (Büyük Ağrı dağı), where Noah’s Ark according to the Bible stranded after the flood.

The Euphrates (Fırat) and Tigris (Dicle) rivers flow into eastern Turkey. The largest lake Van contains salt water. The vegetation in the hinterland is mostly sparse. In Anatolia’s interior and in the east there are lava deserts and salt marshes. In most parts of Turkey, earthquakes can occur.

There are major differences in climate between different parts of Turkey. Along the coasts to the west and south, the Mediterranean climate prevails with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Inland, the climate is continental with hot, dry summers and cold, sunny winters. While the summer temperature in the southeast often exceeds 40 degrees, some areas in the east have winter temperatures of down to 30 minus degrees and four months of snow cover. The Black Sea coast is the rainiest part of the country. The annual rainfall varies from 200 mm in parts of central Turkey to over 2,000 mm in mountainous regions in the east.


779 452 km2 (2018)


Swedish + 1 hour

Adjacent country (s)

Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan (Nachichevan exclave), Iran, Iraq, Syria

Capital with number of residents

Ankara ca 5 504 000

Other major cities

Istanbul 15 677 000 (2018), Izmir 4 320 000 (2018), Bursa 2 994 000 (2018), Antalya 2 426 000 (2018)

Highest mountain

Ararat (5 137 m asl)

Important rivers

Euphrates, Tigris, Kızılırmak, Büyük Menderes, Sakarya

  1. with suburbanSources



Turkish criticism of Greek asylum decision

December 30

Turkey criticizes Greek authorities’ decision to grant political asylum to a helicopter pilot who brought seven Turkish soldiers to Greece after the Turkish coup attempt in July 2016. The issue has created tensions between Turkey and Greece. President Erdoğan has requested that the man and the seven military be extradited to Turkey. The asylum decision has been taken by Greek authorities who believe that the man’s human rights would be in danger of extradition to Turkey. A Greek judge says there is no evidence that the helicopter pilot had been involved in the coup attempt. Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras says that the asylum decision should be set aside and that the Greek government should appeal the case to the Court of Appeal.

Violence decrees receive fierce criticism

24 December

The government issues a decree that states that people who have protected the state by force in connection with the coup attempt in July 2016 can avoid punishment, and in addition, the decision gives impunity in similar future situations. The decree is met by a flood of criticism from, among other opposition parties and lawyers, who fear it will unleash street violence and brutal revenge campaigns.

Places after dismissal must be filled

24 December

Another 2 756 military, academics and other public sector employees lose their jobs, designated for links to terrorism. 17 institutions, including two newspapers, are forced to close. But on the same day, the government announces that 110,000 people will be hired in 2018. Since the coup attempt in 2016, more than 140,000 have been laid off and 55,000 arrested, usually accused of being linked to the Gülen movement.

Purchase of Russian robots negotiated

December 21

Russia states that the details of Turkey’s purchase of anti-aircraft robots are clear. Deliveries of the system will begin at the end of 2019. The arms deal, valued at $ 2 billion, is considered to be the most important nation in Turkey so far, with a country outside the Western military alliance.

Driverless trains in Istanbul

December 15

Istanbul’s first driverless subway line is inaugurated by President Erdoğan, who previously served as mayor of the city. The line runs on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, which during Erdoğan’s time as ruler has, among other things, been provided with a new bridge and two tunnels under the strait. Large investments in infrastructure continue, including Istanbul’s third airport soon to be completed.

Streets change names

December 14

Nearly 200 streets in Istanbul will be renamed, reports Anatolia News Agency. Names are disappearing which may in some way bring to the mind of President’s rival Fethullah Gülen, designated as a coup maker, or to his business. The streets are given new names after people who became heroes when the coup attempt 2016 was defeated.

Calling for support for Palestinians

13th of December

Leaders of member countries of the Islamic Conference (OIC), gathered for a meeting in Turkey, urge the countries of the world to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine. The call for a Turkish initiative is a response to Donald Trump’s announcement that the United States recognizes Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and will begin preparing to move its embassy from Tel Aviv. Before the OIC, President Mahmud Abbas affirmed the Palestinians’ position that the United States can no longer act as a peacemaker with credibility.

Party leader heavily employed

December 7

A court decides that the leader of the pro-Kurdish party HDP, Selahattin Demirtaş, who was arrested in 2016, should be detained. Opposition party CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu also has problems with the judiciary: prosecutors are investigating allegations that he insulted and slandered the president and his immediate circle.

Dissatisfaction with Jerusalem plans

December 6

The announcement that the United States recognizes Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and should move its embassy there raises protests. In recent years, Turkey has mostly had good relations with Israel, but President Erdoğan now threatens to freeze diplomatic relations. The Jerusalem issue, Israel’s power over the holy places, is a “red line” for Muslims, Erdoğan has declared.

Arrest warrant against American

1 December

An arrest warrant is issued against American Graham Fuller, who previously served as chief of part of the CIA intelligence service. Fuller admitted in a newspaper interview that he wrote a letter of recommendation for Fethullah Gülen, who is accused by President Erdoğan of the coup attempt in 2016. The letter must have been written when Gülen applied for a residence permit in the United States. Turkey has long been demanding that Gülen be extradited.


State bank in sanction

November 29th

In a US court, a well-known Turkish-Iranian gold trader, arrested on his way to Disney World in Florida, testifies that he has paid bribery at the ministerial level in Turkey. The corruption scandal was unveiled in Turkey in 2013 and led to resignations, but the aftermath in the US is that there were violations of US sanctions against Iran and that the sanctions were circumvented with the help of state Turkish Halkbank. The trial provokes dissatisfaction in Turkey, which within a few days announces that the gold trader and 22 relatives will have their assets seized in the context of an ongoing investigation.

Military cleansing

November 29th

28 soldiers sentenced to life imprisonment accused of trying to take over an airport in the Asian part of Istanbul during the coup attempt 2016. At the same time, raids are reported in 49 cities by 360 wanted people, most militants, who are identified as supporters of President Erdogan’s rival exiller Fethullah Gülen.

Migrants were held captive

November 28

In Istanbul, police release 57 migrants from Pakistan who have been held captive by human traffickers and in some cases tortured. As a gateway to Europe, the city attracts large numbers of migrants who are at risk of abuse.

Amnesty chief in detention

November 22

A Istanbul court decides that the human rights organization Amnesty International’s Turkey chief will remain detained. The amnesty representative was arrested in June and accused of having links with ex-ex-Fethullah Gülen, whom President Erdoğan sees as responsible for the coup attempt in July 2016.

The EU is reducing its support

November 18

An agreement on the next EU budget includes reduced support for Turkey and the freezing of some previously granted. The EU is concerned by the stringent measures taken in Turkey since the failed coup in 2016, including mass redundancies by government employees. An estimated 50,000 arrested since the coup attempt are also EU citizens.

Nature-proof to Turkey

November 17

The NATO military alliance apologizes to the member state of Turkey. During an exercise in Norwegian Stavanger, representatives of the Turkish state were portrayed as enemies, which prompted Turkey to take home its 40 participants from the exercise.

Transport corridor is set up

November 15

Turkey is one of five countries agreed to establish a transport corridor between Europe (Istanbul) and Afghanistan. The other three countries are Georgia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. They call their cooperation, which includes customs regulations, for the Lapis lazuli corridor, named after a valuable blue stone.

Germans remain in prison

November 4th

A German citizen who has been imprisoned in Turkey is released but is not allowed to leave the country. A week earlier, German human rights activist Peter Steudtner and Swedish IT consultant Ali Gharavi were released and allowed to go home. When arrested, they were charged with terrorist offenses. Nine Germans remain in prison, and dual citizenship can complicate the situation. Turkish and German Foreign Ministers meet in Antalya for meetings called informal talks.

Religious wedding ceremonies

November 3

President Erdoğan signs a disputed law that gives state employees religious representatives the right to execute and register marriages. Critics believe the decision undermines Turkey’s secular constitution.

Mayor replaced

November 2

One after another, the mayors of big cities have resigned at the request of President Erdoğan. Elections will be held in 2019 and according to reports, Erdoğan wants to increase the AKP’s popularity by rejuvenating the leadership. First Kadir Topbaş resigned in Istanbul, but also Ankaras mayor Melih Gökçek and Recep Altepe in the industrial city of Bursa are among those who have been allowed to go. In the April referendum to expand the president’s power, the downside in both Ankara and Istanbul won.


25 life sentences for the coup attempt

October 27th

A court sentenced 25 people to life imprisonment for participating in the coup attempt in July 2016. Among them is a former commander of the Coast Guard. Three people who have been prosecuted in the same trial are acquitted.

Ex-minister forms new party

October 25th

Former Interior Minister Meral Akşener forms a new opposition party and is expected to challenge President Erdoğan in the 2019 presidential election. Akşener was excluded from the Nationalist Party MHP in September 2016 after failing to overthrow the party leader Bahçeli, who according to her, gave too strong support to Erdoğan. She was Minister of the Interior for more than six months from 1996 to 1997. The new party is named Iyi party (The good party) and is believed to be able to attract members of both the MHP and the CHP and the ruling AKP, who are worried that Erdoğan has gathered almost total power with himself.

Human rights activists in court

October 25th

In Istanbul, the trial begins against eleven human rights activists, among them Amnesty International’s two highest leaders in Turkey. Among the defendants are also Swedish Ali Gharavi and a German citizen. All were arrested in connection with a course that Amnesty arranged in July. They are charged with membership in a terrorist organization and face up to 15 years in prison. The accusations have attracted a great deal of international attention and have been met by strong protests from the outside world. Shortly after the trial has started, the court orders that eight of the defendants, including the Swede and the German, be released against the bail. Foreign nationals are said to have the right to leave the country.

The EU is reducing support

October 19

The European Council agrees that a part of the EUR 4.4 billion promised by Turkey for membership negotiations between 2014 and 2020 will be deleted. Council President Donald Tusk explains this with the “difficult” conditions in Turkey at present. The EU highlights its dissatisfaction with developments in Turkey but does not close the door to future membership.

The priests’ marriage rights upset the left

October 19

A decision by Parliament to allow some religious leaders to conduct marriages upset the leftist opposition parties CHP and HDP. Previously, only municipal officials had the right to wed couples. The Left parties fear that the new law will erode the secular values ​​laid down in the Turkish constitution and pave the way for official child marriage, as Islamic tradition says that a girl is married when she reaches puberty. The CHP intends to appeal the law to the Constitutional Court.

Leading activist arrested

October 18

Turkish police seize Osman Kavala, chairman of the human rights organization Anadolu Kültür, who works to reduce the contradictions within Turkish society through cultural activities. The organization has also sought to promote better relations between Turkey and Armenia. Police are also investigating the Anadolu Kültür office in Istanbul. In February 2019, when Kavala is still being held on charges of overthrowing activities, prosecutors request that he (and 15 other persons) be sentenced to life imprisonment.

Turkish troops into Syria

October 13

Hundreds of Turkish soldiers and 30 armored vehicles enter Idlib province in northwestern Syria, controlled by jihadist militia. Reinforcements may be needed in the coming days, says the military leadership. The Syrian Kurdish guerrilla YPG claims that Turkey’s main reason for entering Syria is to occupy the neighboring region Afrin, which is largely controlled by the YPG.

American newspaper reporter sentenced to prison

October 10

A reporter for the American Wall Street Journal is sentenced to two years and one month in prison. According to the court, a news article in 2015 on fighting between Turkish security forces and Kurdish guerrillas was to be considered propaganda for banned PKK. The reporter, who has dual Turkish and Finnish citizenship, is convicted in his absence.

Diplomatic conflict with the United States

October 10

A rapidly escalating diplomatic conflict between Turkey and the US reaches a new peak when President Erdoğan says he no longer recognizes the US ambassador as the country’s representative. The conflict began when a few days earlier a Turkish police arrested a local employee of the US consulate in Istanbul, who was accused of links to the Gülen movement. The United States responded by stopping issuing visitor visas to Turks, after which Turkey stopped granting entry permits for US citizens. The US also raised doubts about the security arrangements surrounding the US missions in Turkey. After a few days of rampant rhetoric, Erdoğan says that all Turkish officials will boycott the US ambassador’s planned farewell visits when he ends his assignment in the country shortly.

Havel award to imprisoned Turkish judge

October 9

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe decides to give the 2017 Vaclav Havel Prize to the Turkish judge Murat Arslan. He has been imprisoned since October 2016 for suspicions of links to the Gülen movement. He was until its chairman of the judges and prosecutors’ cooperative organization Yarsav. The Turkish Foreign Ministry says it is “unacceptable to give a human rights award to a terrorist suspect during an ongoing legal process”.

New mass trial against ex-military

October 9

143 former militants, including 30 officers, face trial in Istanbul for participating in clashes on one of the Bosphorus bridges during the coup night in July 2016. Among the charges are murders and attempts to overthrow Parliament and the government. Those who may be dropped risk up to 37 life sentences.

Criticism against undemocratic decrees

October 6

The Venice Commission – the Council of Europe’s expert group on constitutional affairs – criticizes the Turkish government for dismissing elected mayors and replacing them with government-appointed officials. The Commission emphasizes that the municipal authorities are one of the foundations of democracy and that the key to the public’s participation in the democratic process is that the local leaders are elected directly by the people. The Venice Commission calls on the government not to make decisions on municipal leadership that were not preceded by a parliamentary debate, and to impose provisions for mayors to resume their duties if they are not brought to court. The Commission’s concern concerns mainly the Kurdish-dominated part of the country.

Department employees must be arrested

October 5

Turkish prosecutors issue arrest warrants for 133 employees at the Ministry of Finance and Labor. The suspicions against the people are reported to be based on having had access to the ByLock mobile app for encrypted messages, which according to Turkish authorities should have been used by those who planned the coup attempt in 2016.

Kurdish guerrillas are killed in tourist area

October 5

Turkish security forces kill five alleged members of the Kurdish PKK in the province of Muğla on the Mediterranean coast in the southwest, where some of Turkey’s most popular tourist resorts are located.

34 life sentences

October 4th

34 former military men are sentenced to life imprisonment for planning to kill President Erdoğan at a hotel on the Aegean coast in connection with the coup attempt in July 2016. All are sentenced to four life sentences each. A former brigadier general is appointed leader of the group.


The newspaper Zaman’s employees to trial

September 18

31 former employees of the Gülen-friendly newspapers Zaman and Daily Zaman are brought to trial in Istanbul. They are prosecuted for trying to overthrow the government and for being members of an armed terrorist organization. If they fall, they risk multiple life sentences. Among the defendants is the renowned chronicler and political scientist Şahin Alpay, who lived in Sweden in the 1980s.

The opposition leader’s lawyer is arrested

September 15th

Turkish police seize Celal Çelik, legal representative of opposition leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu, for alleged links to the Guleni movement. Çelik previously served as a judge at the Supreme Court of Appeal but resigned from that post in 2011 in protest of the Gülenists’ increased influence over the judiciary.

Turkey buys Russian air defense

September 13

Turkey signs contract to buy anti-aircraft robots from Russia. The order is estimated to be worth about US $ 2.5 billion. Through the acquisition, Turkey is breaking the tradition of NATO to use weapons that technically work with what is used in the other member states. The shift to Russian equipment can be seen as a mark against NATO, since the US and Germany withdrew their Patriot robots from the Turkish-Syrian border in 2015. President Erdoğan dismisses Western countries’ concerns that Turkey is managing its own security.

99 “terrorists” are killed

September 10

The Turkish army says it has killed 99 Kurdish “terrorists” in attacks against guerrillas in the southeast over the past two weeks. Among those killed is a senior member of the PKK. The army also claims to have seized large quantities of weapons, ammunition and explosives.

“Anti-Turkish” opposition politicians are being investigated

September 8

The Prosecutor General in Ankara initiates a preliminary investigation against CHP parliamentarian Sezgin Tanrıkulu. He is suspected of having “black painted the spirit of the Turkish Republic” by accusing the army of killing civilians in the Kurdish part of the country with the help of a drone. “Black painting Turkish” can give up to two years in prison.

The crisis with Germany deeper

1 September

Since two more German citizens have been arrested in Turkey on suspicion of involvement in the coup attempt in 2016, German Chancellor Merkel says it may be time to review the country’s relations with Turkey. Under current circumstances, continuing to negotiate with Turkey on EU membership would be directly inappropriate, she says. Twelve Germans, including four with dual citizenship, are currently in Turkish detention for political reasons.

A few days later Merkel raises the tone further. In a televised debate ahead of the German elections, she says that she should propose to the other EU leaders that it is time to cancel the membership negotiations with Turkey and that it is obvious that Turkey should not be allowed to join the European Union. According to Merkel, Germany should also consider limiting economic contacts with Turkey. Spokesmen for the Turkish government accuse German politicians of falling back on populism, saying that a break in the negotiations would be “an attack on Europe’s basic principles”.


Juncker: Turkey on the way away from the EU

August 29th

EU Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker says that Turkey itself has to blame for the country’s membership negotiations with the EU having stopped. He says Turkey is moving away quickly from the EU and that it is up to Erdoğan to formally declare the negotiations suspended. He adds that he suspects Erdoğan hopes that the EU will interrupt negotiations to get someone to blame. “But we’re not going to trap that trap,” Juncker says. For more than six months, it has become clear that the EU does not intend to open any new negotiating chapter as long as Turkey captures or dismisses government critics.

Erdogan’s bodyguards are being prosecuted in the United States

August 29th

19 people, including 15 bodyguards for President Erdoğan, are indicted in the United States for violence against protesters in Washington. The incident happened as Erdoğan visited his colleague Trump in May, when bodyguards and civilian supporters of the Turkish president attacked and abused people protesting the visit. Films from the event show how the bodyguards, among other things, knock down protesters and kick them while lying on the ground. Several of the bodyguards ignore the efforts of US police to stop them. A film released also shows how Erdoğan appears to give the bodyguards orders to attack the protesters and how he then looks on while it is happening. Turkish Foreign Ministry claims that the charges are “biased”. President Erdoğan describes them as a “scandalous” example of how American justice works.

“Justice of Congress” challenges Erdoğan

August 26th

In Çanakkale, Western Turkey, CHP leader Kılıçdaroğlu launches a four-day “justice congress” to pay attention to what he calls crimes under Erdogan’s leadership. The opposition leader says it is his duty to fight for justice for those who suffer from the “tyrant” Erdoğan and the “civil coup” he accuses the president of having carried out.

Hundreds more are dismissed

August 25th

Another over 900 public servants are dismissed. They have worked at universities, government offices, government agencies and the defense. At the same time, by decree, a law is required that requires the President’s permission for the intelligence service MIT’s chief to be subject to judicial investigation or called as a witness in a trial. By another decree, the Kurdish news agency Dihaber and two newspapers based in Diyarbakır are closed. Since the coup attempt in July 2016, about 130 media organizations have been banned and about 150 journalists arrested.

Germany sharpens the tone

21th of August

German Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel says that Europe should support “the democratically-minded majority” of Turks who are not on Erdogan’s side. In the magazine Der Spiegel, he suggests that Turkish groups in Germany who oppose Erdoğan receive financial support to counter the Turkish government’s attempt to influence public opinion among Turks in the country through satellite channels and preaching in mosques supported by the Turkish government. A few days later, Gabriel says that it is completely unthinkable that Turkey could join the EU as long as the country is led by Erdoğan.

Extradition requirements upset Germany

20th of August

An author with dual Turkish and German citizenship is arrested in Spain at Turkish request through Interpol. He is released after a day but is detained in the country while Spanish authorities take a stand on Turkey’s demand for extradition. German Chancellor Merkel criticizes the Turkish government for “abusing” international police cooperation for political reasons. Similar criticisms have been raised by Swedish debaters since a Swedish-Turkish author was arrested in Spain on Turkish demand. Since the failed coup attempt in Turkey in July 2016, almost 9,000 Turks have sought asylum in Germany, which is a clear increase compared to previous years. Among them, as always, are people who have escaped the conflict in the country’s Kurdish parts, but in the past year, a whole new category of political refugees has emerged, consisting of diplomats, military, academics, artists, journalists and political activists who oppose the government. So many highly educated Turks have now left the country that Turkey is considered to be on the verge of a skills flight.

Erdoğan makes contributions to the German electoral movement

August 18th

President Erdoğan urges Turks living in Germany not to vote for any of the ruling parties in the September general election, as they are “enemies of Turkey”. Chancellor Angela Merkel and Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel react with rage and say that Germany cannot tolerate such involvement in the country’s business. To this Erdoğan responds that Gabriel should know his place and that he cannot speak to the President of Turkey in that way.

Dress code for defendants

5 August

President Erdoğan decides that people facing trial for suspected participation in the 2016 coup d’état and terrorism should wear brown clothing. “Cupmaker” should wear brown overalls while “terrorists” should wear brown jacket and brown pants. The president has been upset by seeing defendants in T-shirts with defiant messages on his chest.

The government promises media censorship on China

August 3rd

In connection with a meeting with his Chinese counterpart Wang Yi, Foreign Minister Çavuşoğlu says that the Turkish government intends to put a stop to all media details criticizing China. He says Turkey is just as keen on guarding China’s security as its own. The countries have a common interest in countering Islamic terrorism. Çavuşoğlu does not specify how criticism of China should be stopped.

Hundreds are facing trial for the coup attempt

1 August

In a court outside Ankara, the trial begins against several hundred people accused of participating in the coup attempt in 2016. A total of 486 are prosecuted, of which 461 have been in custody for a long time. 41 of them are brought into the courtroom one by one under heavy police surveillance, while onlookers loudly demand the death penalty for them. When the defense lawyers try to make themselves heard, they are buzzed out by relatives of those killed during the coup night. The defendants are accused of leading the coup attempt from an air base outside Ankara, which the authorities consider to be the coup makers’ headquarters.


Kurdish protest campaign

July 25

The pro-Kurdish party HDP announces a three-month protest campaign against the government’s mass arrests, which has led to large parts of the party leadership being jailed. The actions will continue until November 4, which is the anniversary of the arrests of HDP’s two chairmen Selahattin Demirtaş and Figen Yüksekdağ.

Trial against Cumhuriyet’s staff

July 24

17 employees of the opposition secular newspaper Cumhuriyet are facing trial in Istanbul. Eleven of them have already been in prison since the fall of 2016 without a sentence, which made the state of emergency possible. The others are on the run and are being investigated in their absence. Among the defendants are the newspaper editor-in-chief Murat Sabuncu, the columnist Kadri Gürsel, the satirist Musa Kart and the chairman of the board Akın Atalay. They are accused of conspiring with three terrorist-classified organizations: the Kurdish PKK, the left-wing extremists DHKP-C and the Güleni movement. However, the newspaper is known to have been an opponent of all three movements.

Germany sharpens the tone

July 20

Germany strikes back against Turkey with economic threats. Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel says the government will review the state guarantees for investment in Turkey and advise German companies not to invest money there. According to Gabriel, Germany is also considering no longer supporting the flow of EU money to member aspirant Turkey. He also warns German citizens that the state cannot guarantee their security if they are tourists in Turkey as long as “random” mass arrests are ongoing. A spokesman for the Turkish president condemns Gabriel’s statements as “unacceptable” and “politically irresponsible”.

The government is being reformed

July 19

Prime Minister Yıldırım reforms the government. 15 ministers are allowed to keep their jobs, including those who are mainly responsible for the economy, while five new people are admitted to the government and six ministers can change ministries.

New syllabus without Darwin

July 18

When the syllabuses for the coming academic year are published, Darwin’s theory of evolution is the stroke. Education Minister Ismet Yılmaz says that evolution is “above the level of students” and that they can wait for it until they come to university. Spokespeople for the opposition party CHP and the teachers’ union say that the changed syllabus is a threat to the secular state and the scientific basis of education.

Aggravated crisis with Germany

July 18

Turkey’s already strained relations with Germany deteriorate after a German citizen was arrested for alleged terrorist activities. The detained man attended a seminar on human rights issues. Among five others arrested in the same case are Amnesty International’s Turkish boss and a Swedish activist. Both Swedish and German foreign ministries criticize the arrests and demand explanations.

Exception laws are extended

July 17

Parliament votes to extend the state of emergency by a further three months;

Mass meetings on the anniversary of the coup attempt

July 15

Around the country, mass meetings are being held on the anniversary of the coup attempt failed in 2016. In a speech to hundreds of thousands of people near the bridge over the Bosphorus that the coup makers had blocked, President Erdoğan once again says he is ready to reinstate the death penalty, and he threatens to “chop traitor’s head “. The President also participates in an extra session in Parliament, where opposition leader Kılıçdaroğlu also speaks. He blames the judiciary for moving beyond the law in the past year, when more than 50,000 people have been imprisoned, most so far without trial. Just in time for the anniversary, more than 7,000 police officers, civil servants and academics are dismissed.

“Justice meeting” challenges the president

July 9

Hundreds of thousands of people attend a protest meeting against President Erdoğan in a square in the Asian part of Istanbul, where opposition leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu ends his 25-day hike from Ankara, a distance of 45 kilometers. The lengthy “justice march” has been carried out in protest of one of the opposition party’s CHP MPs being sentenced to 25 years in prison for leaking secret information to a newspaper. The closer the Istanbul participants have come, the more people have joined the demonstration which has grown into a powerful manifestation of perceived injustice in Turkish society during the state of emergency which has ruled for almost a year.

Almost 1,000 companies confiscated after the coup attempt

July 7

Since the coup attempt in July 2016, the Turkish state has confiscated 965 companies with suspected links to the Gülen movement, says Deputy Prime Minister Nurettin Canikli. The companies have over 46,000 employees, sales of around SEK 90 billion and annual sales of about SEK 50 billion. The arrests of suspected Gülenists continue. Most recently, ten human rights activists, including Amnesty International’s head of Turkey, have been arrested.

The referendum to the European Court of Justice

July 4th

The opposition party CHP submits a request to the European Court of Human Rights to review the Turkish referendum in April on increased presidential power. The CHP refers to the occurrence of a number of irregularities. The case goes to the European Court of Justice since the Turkish judicial system has rejected the protests.


Lifetime convictions after the coup attempt

June 15

An Ankara court sentenced 23 people to life imprisonment for participating in the coup attempt in the summer of 2016. One person is sentenced to twelve years in prison while two soldiers are released in the sentencing, the first to be announced in the capital after the coup attempt.

UN criticism against prison sentences for judges

June 15

The UN criticizes Turkey after a high-ranking judge linked to the UN judicial body MICT (Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals) was sentenced to 7.5 years in prison. Judge Aydın Sefa Akay, who is accused of conspiring with the terror-stamped Gülen movement, was arrested in September 2016 and has not been allowed to leave the country since. He normally works with a MICT target in The Hague that deals with war crimes in Rwanda, but has been crippled by his absence.

Opposition leaders initiate protest march

June 15

CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu launches an almost 50-mile protest march from Ankara to Istanbul, along with thousands of participants. The protesters protest the prison sentence the day before against CHP member Enis Berberoğlu. On the first day, the protesters walk almost two miles in five hours. President Erdoğan threatens legal action against the protest, but Kılıçdaroğlu insists that the march be carried out.

Long prison sentence for CHP MPs

June 14

MP Enis Berberoğlu is sentenced to 25 years in prison for leaking secretly stamped material to the Cumhuriyet newspaper. The target is for images that were reported to show how Turkish intelligence services smuggled weapons across the border into Syria and should have been handed over to Cumhuriyet’s then-editor-in-chief Can Dündar 2015 (see Calendar). Berberoğlu is the first CHP MP to be arrested after the coup attempt. He will eventually receive a new trial and will be sentenced in February 2018 to five years and ten months in prison.

Turkish troops ready for Qatar

June 8

A law that allows Turkey to station a military force in Qatar is signed by President Erdoğan after being swiftly pushed through parliament. Turkey stands in defense of Qatar, which has been isolated in much of the Arab world following allegations of supporting Sunni terrorist movements. Turkey is preparing to send ground soldiers as well as combat aircraft and warships to the country in the Persian Gulf.

Germany leaves Turkish base

7 June

The German government decides to withdraw its military force of over 250 men from the Incirlik base in southern Turkey, after Turkey for some time refused to allow German MPs to visit the soldiers. The conflict stems, among other things, in Turkish anger that Germany has granted political asylum to Turkish citizens suspected of links to the Gülen movement.

Amnesty’s chairman is arrested

6th June

Amnesty International’s chairman in Turkey, Taner Kılıç, is arrested along with 22 other people in Izmir. They are suspected of intercourse with the Gülen movement. Prosecution is brought against Kılıç a few days later.

Government advisers arrested

June 3

The Prime Minister’s closest adviser Birol Erdem is arrested on suspicion of links to the Gülen movement. His wife was also arrested. Erdem is one of the highest ranking in the ongoing cleansing of suspected Gülenists. Previously, among other things, the president’s highest military adviser was stuck on the net.


Suspected coup leaders in court

May 22

Over 200 people designated as the brains behind the 2016 coup attempt are brought to trial in Istanbul. The vast majority are senior officers.

Erdoğan back in the party leadership

May 21

President Erdoğan is re-elected chairman of the AKP government party at an extra convened congress. It is the first time since 1950 that Turkey’s head of state has simultaneously been able to be a party leader. He also announces that the emergency permit introduced after the coup attempt in July 2016 should remain in force “until the country has reached prosperity and peace”. The rule gives the president and the government the right to govern by decree without waiting for Parliament’s approval.

Kurd party chooses new leader

May 21

The pro-Kurdish party HDP elects Serpil Kemalbay as new leader. She replaces the imprisoned Fig Yüksekdağ, who has been deprived of his seat by the authorities.

Turkey wants US diplomat removed

May 18

The government demands that the US envoy for the fight against IS be dismissed. The reason is that, according to Turkey, he supports the Syrian-Kurdish guerrilla YPG. The government threatens to go on offensive against the US Kurdish allies if the YPG attacks Turkish targets.

New crisis in German relations

May 16

The already strained relations between Turkey and Germany are further deteriorated after German authorities granted political asylum to Turkish citizens who were requested to be extradited for the suspected coup attempt in July 2016. Turkey responds by refusing to allow German MPs at the Incirlik air base near Syrian borders 250 German soldiers are stationed. Prime Minister Yıldırım says the German government must choose between the Turkish government and the “coup makers”.

Judges are sentenced

May 5th

The Supreme Court (HSYK) dismisses an additional 107 judges and prosecutors accused of being supporters of the Gülen movement. HSYK announces that they will also be arrested. According to the new presidential system recently adopted by a referendum, HSYK is also to be reformed and the number of members is reduced from 22 to 13, seven of whom will be appointed by Parliament and six directly or indirectly by the president. The critics fear that the president should have direct control over the judiciary, while those advocating the amendment consider it to streamline the judicial system.

Wikipedia is banned

May 5th

A state media agency bans the international digital encyclopedia Wikipedia on the grounds that the site refused to remove what, according to the authorities, is false information about connections between the Turkish state and terrorist groups. The ban is confirmed by a court, and Wikipedia’s appeal is rejected by a higher court.

The president back in the party

May 2

President Erdoğan regains his membership in the AKP government party after nearly three years formally alongside party politics. This is the first tangible result of the recent constitutional amendments. He is expected to resume the presidency at an additional party congress on May 21.

UN criticism of purges

May 1

Over the course of a few days, more than 1,000 people are arrested during raids around the country, more than 9,000 police officers are suspended from their services and nearly 4,000 other government employees are laid off, including over 1,000 employed by the Justice Department and over 1,000 defense personnel. All are suspected of links to the Gülen movement. UN human rights commissioner Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein says it is “highly unlikely” that Turkish authorities have followed their own laws at the mass shootings that have been ongoing since the failed coup attempt in July 2016. Zeid is also worried that the state of emergency has been extended and says that there is a “horror atmosphere” in Turkey.


Prison for complaint

26th of April

A woman who called a talk show on a Turkish TV channel and complained about the army’s efforts in the Kurdish part of the country is sentenced to prison for one year and three months. She is being convicted of “terrorist propaganda”.

New judicial review of Turkey

April 25

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (Pace) decides to resume monitoring of the Turkish judiciary and respect for human rights. The country was under surveillance until 2004, when the Council of Europe judged that sufficient progress had been made. This is the first time a country has been placed under new surveillance, which means, among other things, that two reporters regularly visit the country and that Pace will have recurring debates on the situation in Turkey.

Rages against Kurds in neighboring countries

April 25

Turkish airplane kills at least 26 Kurdish militiamen in raids inside Iraq and Syria. The Syrian-Kurdish YPG guerrillas and the peshmergas force in northern Iraq both work closely with the United States in the fight against IS. The attacks in northeastern Syria are aimed at a Kurdish media center.

Protests are rejected

April 20

The electoral authority rejects the demands to annul the referendum, but the CHP says the party is adhering to its protests. The Minister of Justice says that the Constitutional Court will not deal with any appeals and that there is no point in protesting to the European Court of Justice, as the government has no authority over the Turkish judiciary.

Kurdish party appeals

April 19

The pro-Kurdish party HDP submits an official protest to the electoral authority. The party cites a number of reasons why it believes the referendum should be annulled. The election campaign was conducted under emergency conditions with the party’s leader in custody, the HDP was refused in many places to have observers in the polling stations and government money was used for the yes campaign. In addition, the HDP considers that the decision to approve unstamped ballots and envelopes makes it impossible to determine how many invalid votes have been counted.

The EU wants to see an “open” investigation

April 18

The European Commission calls on the Turkish authorities to investigate the allegations of irregularities during the referendum and to do so to ensure the public’s transparency in the work. The Turkish Bar Association believes that the Election Commission’s decision to accept unstamped ballots and envelopes was a violation of the regulations and made voting more difficult, which may have affected the outcome. The opposition party CHP claims that there have been violations of the rules in almost 11,000 polling stations.

“Yes” to strengthened presidential power

April 16

The Yes side wins the referendum with a preliminary 51.41 percent of the vote. The support for giving the president almost unlimited power is strongest in the Anatolian countryside, while the no-side wins in the major cities of Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir, as well as in the Kurdish part of the country. Opposition parties CHP and HDP claim that there were irregularities, including that votes were counted even though the ballot papers were not properly stamped. The CHP decides to appeal the entire referendum and, if necessary, go to the Constitutional Court to have the vote annulled. The European Commission appeals to Erdoğan to respect the smooth outcome of the election and to “seek the widest possible national consensus”, given the far-reaching powers conferred on him by the forthcoming constitutional amendments.OSCEThe joint observers’ group of the Council of Europe and the Council of Europe say that the conditions for the referendum have been extremely unfair, as the yes side has had such a large takeover in the public and that the no side has been weakened by the fact that many at the official level have compared the critics with terrorists. The observers also point out, with reference to the unmarked ballot papers, that the rules were changed during the election day and that the rules adapted to parliamentary elections proved insufficient in this referendum. The observers criticize what they describe as the misuse of state resources and say that the referendum did not live up to international norms. Reactions within the EU are cautious but several governments are appealing to the Turkish leadership to respect the European Convention on Human Rights. Erdoğan dismisses the criticism and tells the observers to “know their place”. Next, there could be a referendum on EU negotiations, he says, and if Parliament votes to reintroduce the death penalty, he will sign such a law.

“Jihadists” are arrested before a referendum

April 14

Two days before the historic referendum on a new constitution with strengthened presidential power, the security service states that it has arrested five suspected members of the Islamic State who have planned a “sensational” attack in Istanbul. A few days earlier, 19 suspected IS members have been arrested in Izmir for plans to sabotage the referendum. The opinion polls indicate a very smooth election result, but the measurements are met with some skepticism. The Yes side, which wants to give the president almost unlimited power, has had total dominance in the media and in the street environments.

Kurdish promotional song is prohibited

April 4th

A district court in southern Turkey bans the pro-Kurdish party from HDP’s ampanj song before the referendum on new constitution. The song “Bejin na” (Say no) is accused of spreading hate propaganda. The ban applies throughout the country. The electoral movement has been characterized by a strong takeover for the yes side, which wants to strengthen the power of the president, and great difficulties for the opponents to carry out their arguments.


Spy charges against Turkey

March 31st

Information about how Turkish authorities are spying on Turks living in other countries is getting closer. In Germany, prosecutors are launching a criminal investigation against a representative of the Turkish religious authority Diyanet who is suspected of collecting information about supporters of the Gülen movement. Spy allegations against Turkish representatives close to AKP come from a number of countries around the world, including Sweden. Calls for stating against Gülen followers are said to be common.

Syrian offensive ending

March 29th

The government announces that the military offensive in northern Syria, which went by the name of the “Euphrates Shield”, has ended after eight months (see August 2016). The objective of the offensive has been to drive IS away from the areas west of the Euphrates River. It is unclear whether the Turkish soldiers will be taken home from Syria or whether they will be deployed elsewhere in the country. Turkey is keen to take part in the offensive against IS “capital” Raqqa, but demands that the US allied Syrian-Kurdish militia YPG be kept out of that fight.

No more elections in Germany

21 March

The AKP government decides to suspend all scheduled elections in Germany. No justification is given, but the message comes after, among other close associates of Chancellor Merkel, that Erdoğan is not welcome to Germany and that the German state is not interested in deploying thousands of police to protect a man who has so deeply offended the country.

Awesome results against Germany

March 19

Turkey’s defense minister suggests that Germany may have been involved in the coup attempt in July 2016. The accusation comes after the head of the German foreign espionage said in a newspaper interview that he doubted the Turkish “evidence” that the Gülen movement was behind the coup attempt. In Ankara, the German ambassador receives a protest against allowing pro-Kurdish protesters in Frankfurt to show off PKK’s party symbols. President Erdoğan personally accuses Chancellor Merkel of behaving like a Nazi. A government spokesman in Berlin says Germany does not want to lower itself to Erdogan’s level, but that his outcome is unacceptable and that it is the Turkish government’s job to ensure that countries’ relations are not damaged in the long term.

“Crusade against Islam”

March 16

Erdoğan criticizes the European Court of Justice for conducting a crusade against Islam, after the court ruled that companies have the right to prohibit employees from wearing “political, philosophical or religious” symbols, including Muslim headscarves.

The war of words is escalating

March 15th

Erdoğan continues its outcome against EU countries and their leaders and compares the treatment of non-Europeans in the EU today with how Jews were treated during the Second World War. “The spirit of fascism runs wild on the streets of Europe,” he says, among other things. EU spokesmen say that the Turkish president has lost touch with reality and that his choice of words and criticism is badly suited to a country that says it wants to join the EU. A large number of Western European accounts on the microblogging Twitter are hacked by activists who, among other things, provide them with crosshairs. Pro-Turkish forces are suspected.

The EU is defending Erdogan

the 13th of March

The European Commission urges President Erdoğan to “avoid exaggerated statements and measures that could further aggravate the situation”. At the same time, Turkish Foreign Ministry submits two formal protests to the Dutch envoy, while the Hague government calls on Dutch citizens of Turkey to “be on guard”. The Danish government asks Turkey’s Prime Minister Yıldırım to postpone a planned one visit later this month. At the same time, the European Commission says that if the proposed Turkish constitutional changes are approved in the referendum in April, the new constitution will be reviewed and evaluated by the EU, given Turkey’s application for membership in the Union. The Venice Commission, the Council of Europe’s expert committee on constitutional issues, says the proposed changes represent a “dangerous step back for democracy”. The Turkish government dismisses the criticism as biased and unkind, saying that the Venice Commission has become politicized and tarnished its reputation.

Conflict with the Netherlands

the 12th of March

Turkey ends up in a serious diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands, since the authorities there refused to admit Foreign Minister Çavuşoğlu, who would have held a general election in Rotterdam, and expelled the Turkish family minister to Germany. The treatment of the Foreign Minister was a reaction to the Turkish government threatening the Netherlands with some kind of financial penalty if he was not allowed to meet Turkish voters in Rotterdam. President Erdoğan, who previously accused the German authorities of behaving like Nazis, now describes the Dutch government in similar terms. The Dutch ambassador to Ankara, who is temporarily on vacation, is told that he is not welcome back. In Istanbul, protesters enter the consulate of the Netherlands and replace the country’s flag with a Turkish one. In Rotterdam, police drive away protesters outside the Turkish Consulate with water cannons and dogs. The Turkish government threatens to punish the Netherlands in every way until an apology is obtained. Erdoğan says the Netherlands should be forced to pay “a high price” for its actions.

Harsh criticism from the UN

March 10

The UN human rights department blames Turkish security forces for gross human rights violations in the pursuit of militant Kurds in the southeastern part of the country between July 2015 and December 2016. According to the report, nearly half a million people were displaced from their homes and major material destruction was caused, and this without the UN having been held responsible by a single person. About 2,000 people were killed, of which about 800 were security forces. Among the other 1,200, according to the UN, there may have been some who participated in actions against the state. The Turkish government rejects “the so-called report” which, according to it, is based on “claims by malicious circles”.

“Anti-terrorist action”

6 March

Turkish security forces launch the largest “anti-terrorist campaign” in several years in the south-east of the country. About 7,000 gendarmes and 600 special soldiers, with the support of tanks and helicopters, enter a dish area in the province of Diyarbakır. Curfew is introduced in 18 villages. The purpose is to “neutralize” members of the PKK.

Turkish anger towards Germany

March 5th

President Erdoğan is targeting a sharp blow to Germany, after several German cities have refused to allow Turkish ministers to hold elections there before the referendum to strengthen the president’s power. He says that the German state behaves much like the Nazis. At the same time, the Dutch government says it opposes Turkish plans at an election meeting in Rotterdam. Austrian Chancellor Christian Kern calls on the EU to ban Turkish elections jointly. He also wants Turkey’s membership negotiations to be interrupted in response to Erdoğan “undermining human rights and fundamental democratic rights”. A spokesman for Chancellor Merkel describes the comparison with Nazi times as “absurd” and calls for knowledge and sense. The chairman of the Turkish National Federation in Germany admits that Erdoğan has gone too far.


Mass trial begins

February 28

About 330 people are facing trial in the vicinity of Ankara in the largest trial to date relating to the coup attempt in 2016. About 240 of them are already in custody. They are charged with murder and attempted murder, as well as attempts to overthrow the government and dissolve Parliament. They risk multiple life sentences.

German correspondent arrested

February 27th

A court detains a correspondent for the German newspaper Die Welt, accused of spreading terrorist propaganda and inciting hatred. The charges relate to information that an email account belonging to the Turkish Minister of Energy, as well as his son-in-law to President Erdoğan, should have been hacked. The data breaches should have revealed attempts by the government to take control of media companies and manipulate public opinion by spreading false information on social media. German Chancellor Angela Merkel appeals to the Turkish authorities to consider the importance of freedom of the press in democratic societies.

Turkish anger towards Austria

February 27th

The Turkish government criticizes Austria for “irresponsible” behavior towards Turkey, after Austria’s Foreign Minister said that President Erdoğan is not welcome to run an election campaign in Turkey. According to the Austrian government, this would increase tensions in the country and hamper the integration of the 360,000 Turkish-born residents of Austria. A Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman says that the Austrian authorities are prejudiced and exceed their powers.

Female soldiers are allowed to wear shawls

February 22

The Ministry of Defense gives orders that female military commanders in staff positions may wear Islamic headscarves, provided it is the same color as the uniform and does not hide anything from the face. Earlier, under the AKP’s rule, the shawl ban was lifted at schools and universities, in political assemblies and within the police.

Kurdish leaders are punished

February 21st

Pro-Kurdish party HDP leader Selahattin Demirtaş is sentenced to five months in prison for violating the Turkish state and its institutions. In another legal case, where he is accused of being linked to the PKK and for having spread terrorist propaganda, he risks imprisonment for up to 142 years. At the same time, his co-chair of the HDP, Figen Yüksekdağ, is deprived of his seat in Parliament, citing a 2013 ruling on terrorist propaganda.

Trial for murder plans against the president

February 20th

47 people, most of them soldiers, face trial in Muğla in the southwest for trying to kill President Erdoğan during the coup attempt in July 2016. Prosecutors are serving life imprisonment for all.

Hundreds of Kurdish grips

February 14th

More than 600 people suspected of being linked to the terrorist-stamped Kurdish PKK guerrilla are arrested during two days of police raids, state media reports. The legal pro-Kurdish party HDP says that 5,000 of its members have been arrested following the coup attempt against the government in July 2016.

All ready for referendum

February 10

President Erdoğan signs the bill on constitutional amendments that gives him greatly increased power. It is thus clear that the proposal will be submitted to a referendum, which will be held on April 16.

Soldiers killed in Syria

February 9

Three Turkish soldiers are killed in northern Syria in a targeted Russian air strike. Russian President Putin regrets the mistake in a telephone conversation with Erdoğan and they are agreed to improve coordination between their respective military operations.

Mass arrests of suspected Islamists

February 5

In the biggest strike so far in Turkey against suspected members of the Islamic terrorist sect IS, more than 750 people are arrested around the country. Among those arrested are Turks as well as foreigners.


Gülen in court, and 269 others

30th of January

A lawsuit is initiated against Islamic leader Fethullah Gülen and 269 other people accused of lying behind the coup attempt in July 2016. Of the defendants, 152 have been detained since the coup attempt. Among them are a number of high-ranking military. Gülen himself is being investigated in his absence. He lives in the United States, whose legal system has so far failed to obey Turkey’s demand for extradition.

Greece does not extradite soldiers

January 26

Eight Turkish officers who fled in helicopter to Greece in connection with the failed coup attempt in July 2016 will not be extradited. The Greek Supreme Court ruled that they would not receive a fair trial in their home country and order that they be released on trial. The eight officers have so far been denied political asylum in Greece, but their appeals are pending. The Turkish government says it will review its relations with Greece and is considering terminating the agreement with the EU to withdraw migrants from Greece. The Justice Department submits a new request to have the eight officers extradited, claiming that the court decision had a political motive.

Syrian talks under Turkish leadership

January 23

Along with Russia and Iran, Turkey is the organizer of Syrian peace talks, which will start in Kazakhstan’s capital Astana.

Parliament approves constitutional amendments

January 21st

Parliament approves, in a decisive vote, 18 proposals for amendments to the Constitution aimed, inter alia, at strengthening the power of the President; If the proposals are also approved in a referendum in the spring, the president is given, inter alia, the power to govern by decree, announce state of emergency, appoint all ministers and senior government officials, and dissolve parliament. The post of prime minister is abolished and replaced by a vice president. The president no longer needs to stand alongside party politics, which can give the current head of state Erdoğan the right to take back the leadership of the AKP government party. The long debate in Parliament has been fierce and on some occasions has led to tangibility. The pro-Kurdish HDP, which has several of its members in jail, has boycotted the debate and the leading opposition party CHP says it will wage an intense campaign against the changes ahead of the referendum, which is likely to take place in early April. Presidential and parliamentary elections are scheduled for 2019, when Erdoğan can stand for re-election for another five years,

Long sentences are required for Kurdish leaders

January 17

Prosecutors in the trial against HDP leaders Selahattin Demirtaş and Figen Yüksekdağ are serving prison sentences of up to 142 and 83 years respectively for membership in a terrorist organization and dissemination of hate propaganda. They are also held accountable for pro-Kurdish protests in the fall of 2014 against Turkey’s involvement in Syria, degenerating into violence with many casualties.

More than 8,000 are dismissed

7 th of January

Nearly 8,400 civil servants are laid off and some 80 associations are closed, among them sports clubs, in a new round of purges after the coup attempt in July 2016. Among those dismissed are police, employees at the Justice Department, health officials and hundreds of others. At the same time, the government decides that Turks living abroad can be deprived of their citizenship if they refuse to be heard by staff investigating the coup attempt.

380 businessmen should be arrested

January 5

Arrest warrants are issued against 380 businessmen who are accused of providing financial support to the Gülen movement. Prosecutors should also have asked to do the house search in their homes.

The first judges after the coup attempt

January 5

Two army officers are sentenced to life imprisonment. They are sentenced for violation of the Constitution after participating in the coup attempt in July 2016. It is the first two judgments that are handed down in what will be the largest legal process in the country’s history.

Exception laws are extended

January 3rd

Parliament extends the emergency permit introduced after the coup attempt in July 2016. It is now in effect until 19 April.

Terrorist attack on New Year’s party

January 1st

The new year is just an hour old when one person kills 39 people and injures nearly 70 at a popular nightclub in Istanbul. 27 of the victims are foreign nationals, most of them from Arab countries but also an Israeli woman. After a day, the Islamic State takes on the deed. It is the first time the Islamist extremist movement has taken on a major attack inside Turkey. According to the statement, the attack is revenge for Turkey’s war against IS in Syria, where Turkish forces are currently trying to capture the IS-controlled city of al-Bab. The perpetrator who was arrested after just over two weeks is described as a 34-year-old Uzbek who received terrorist training in Afghanistan. He admits and says according to local media that he has been ordered by IS in Syria to carry out an attack.