+1 is the dialing code for Canada.
Canada is the world’s second largest country. It stretches for hundreds of miles between the Atlantic, Pacific and Northern Arctic Ocean. Yet it is constantly in the shadow of the great neighboring United States. Canada defends itself against being considered a kind of smaller United States. Rather, it can be compared with the Nordic countries in terms of social security. European heritage is also evident in the strong position of French culture in the province of Québec, where the majority of residents speak French. However, most of the residents have English as their mother tongue. In recent years there has been a great immigration to Canada, not least from Asia.
- Abbreviationfinder: Brief profiles of Canada, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Canada is the world’s second largest country (only Russia is larger). The distance from its northernmost point in the Arctic Ocean to the border with the United States in the south is 400 miles. From the province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the far east to British Columbia to the west, it is about 540 miles.
The west coast is dominated by the Kustbergen and Klippiga mountains which run parallel in the north-south direction. Mount Logan in Yukon is Canada’s highest mountain. The coastal landscape is characterized by fjords and thousands of islands. To the east of the Rocky Mountains lies the prairie that slowly descends from the Alberta plateau area to the Manitoba Basin.
Half of the country’s surface consists of a lake-rich plain and plateau landscape on the world’s oldest bedrock, the so-called Canadian Shield, which surrounds Hudson Bay and extends west to Lake Stora Björnsjön in the north. Northwest of the Canadian Shield are the Arctic Islands. At the far north is Ellesmere Island with mountains reaching up to 3,000 meters. In eastern Canada, another highland, the Appalachian region, rises with round low mountains. The highlands include eastern Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. The landscape of southern Quebec and Ontario is characterized by the lowlands of the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes.
A little over a quarter of the country’s area is covered by forests, mainly coniferous forest, which corresponds to almost 9 percent of the world’s forest areas. 94 percent of the forest is owned by the state or the provinces.
There are about two million lakes in the country, which is equivalent to half of the world’s freshwater lakes.
|Cultivated land||6.8 %|
|Land area||9984670 km 2|
Population and health
|Population development||0.75 ‰|
|Urban population (Urbanization)||81.8 %|
|Death rate||8.42 per 1000 residents|
|Life expectancy: Women||84.52 years|
|Life expectancy: Men||79.15 years|
|Birth rate||10.28 births per 1000 residents|
|Infant mortality||4.65 deaths / 1000 births|
Population Graph Source: Countryaah.com
|Electricity, production||616200 million kWh|
|Energy consumption per inhabitant||7149.3 kg. oil per resident|
|Natural gas, production||151200 million cubic meters|
|Crude oil, production||216 million tons|
|Internet users||92.9 per 100 residents|
|Mobile subscriptions||85 per 100 residents|
|Passenger cars||607 per 1000 residents|
Business and economics
|Unemployment||6.9% of the workforce|
|GDP||45600 per resident|
|Primary occupations||2 %|
|Secondary profession||19 %|
|Tertiary professions||79 %|
Most of Canada has a cold-temperate climate with long and cold winters. The mildest winters are found on the west coast, which has a narrow zone with warm temperate climate. In most of the country, summer temperatures vary between 10 and 26 degrees. Humid air from the Atlantic Ocean and the cold Labrador stream provide cool summers on the East Coast. It rains most along the Pacific coast.
In the far north, polar climates with winter temperatures around 40 minus degrees and summer temperatures below 10 plus degrees. Climate change has caused the ice in the Arctic to begin to melt. In 2012, only 12 percent of Canada’s Arctic waters were covered by ice, compared to normally 30-35 percent. From 2007, the Northwest Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean has been ice free for several months a year. In 2013, however, it was blocked by ice most of the summer. Some researchers predict that the passage will be completely ice-free during the summer of 2050 if the temperature continues to rise at the same rate as now.
Both cargo and cruise ships move in the Arctic waters. This raises concerns about the consequences of an accident in the area. This involves both difficulties in carrying out rescue operations, but also how a large oil spill would affect the sensitive environment. So far, however, traffic is limited, the difficulties to get to it are still too great. In July 2017, it took 24 days for a Finnish icebreaker to make the 1,000 miles from Vancouver to Nuuk in Greenland.
FACTS – GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
8 965 121 km2 (2018)
Swedish −4.5 to −9 hours
Adjacent country (s)
Capital with number of residents
Ottawa 1 Million (Sources: Allcitypopulation.com)
Other major cities
Toronto just over 6.3 million, Montreal just under 4.3 million, Vancouver nearly 2.7 million, Calgary 1.5 million, Edmonton 1.4 million (2018)
Mount Logan (6,050 m asl)
Mackenzie Rivers, St. Lawrence Rivers
Lake Superior (Upper Lake)
Average Precipitation / year
Ottawa 871 mm, Vancouver 1458 mm
Average / day
Ottawa 21 °C (July), -6 °C (Jan) 1
- Vancouver 18 °C (July), 2 °C (Jan)Sources
Trudeau appoints 21 new senators
Prime Minister Trudeau appoints 21 senators who will sit there as independent. This means that no party has a majority in the higher chamber.
Clear sign for new oil lines
Prime Minister Trudeau announces that the federal government will sign two major oil pipelines, the controversial Trans Mountain pipeline, to be drawn from Alberta via British Columbia, and Line 3, from Alberta to Wisconsin in the United States, while saying no to a third pipeline that would have passed Northern British Columbia: Northern Gateway, for the sake of locals and to protect the sensitive environment. Both environmental organizations and representatives of indigenous peoples criticize the decision
Trudeau in windy weather
Prime Minister Trudeau’s tribute to Fidel Castro, following the death of the Cuban leader at the end of the month, faces strong criticism from both conservative circles within the country as well as from the United States (see also Foreign Policy and Defense). At home, however, he received support from Québec’s head of government Philippe Couillard.
The government wants to change controversial electoral law
The government announces changes to the controversial Elections Act, which the Conservative government introduced in 2014. This means that it will again be allowed for the electoral authority to try to persuade more Canadians to vote in the elections, that the document sent to voters who have the right to vote (voter information card) acts as an ID document in the election and the restrictions imposed on Canadians living abroad are removed (according to the 2014 rules, only those who lived abroad for less than five years were allowed to vote and they must also show that they had intending to return to his home country).
Power change in Yukon
The election in Yukon leads to a shift in power, with the Liberal Party winning 11 of the 19 seats. This means that the Yukon Party’s 14-year reign is over.
Trade agreements with the EU are signed
Canada and the EU sign a Ceta trade agreement that will eliminate almost all customs duties between countries. It happens a few days later than expected due to opposition from Wallonia in Belgium. But for it to formally enter into force, it must now be approved by 40 national and regional parliaments. A first step on the road will be a vote in the European Parliament (see also Foreign Policy and Defense).
Yes to the disputed gas pipeline
The Government of Canada is clearing a new natural gas pipeline, Pacific North West, in northern British Columbia. The project, which will cost over US $ 11 billion (just under US $ 9 billion), is contentious. Several environmental organizations criticize the decision, which they say makes it difficult for the government to fulfill its promises in the climate field (see Natural Resources and Energy).
Action against chemical weapons
Canada has contributed financially to an operation in Libya where dangerous chemicals were shipped out of the country so as not to fall into the hands of the Islamic State (IS) terror group.
Canadian companies are charged with arms embargo violations
Several Canadian companies, including the Streit Group, are accused in a UN report of having sold weapons to Sudan, South Sudan and Libya, despite the countries being embargoed with arms embargo. The Canadian government says that they have not been able to intervene with the companies, as the sales have been through the United Arab Emirates.
Apology for abuse against indigenous people in Manitoba
Ottawa apologizes to an Indian group in Manitoba. It was in 1956 that the federal government decided to forcibly relocate 250 Sayisi dene Indians (First Nation) from an area in the north of the province, citing that they shot too many caribou (North American reindeer). The promises of help with housing, food and other things were not fulfilled, but the displaced were allowed to live in poverty. The government also pledges financial support to the group of nearly $ 34 million.
Canada for euthanasia
17th of June
According to a controversial bill passed by the Senate on June 16 (the House of Commons has already given its approval), healthcare professionals in Canada should be able to help severely ill people die. However, euthanasia can only be given to people who are close to dying naturally. The Senate has wished that even people who are not mortally ill would be covered by the law, but the lower house rejects this. The law gives doctors, nurses and pharmacists the right to help people die without risking prosecution. Two medically skilled persons must sign the patient’s request to die. A ten-day waiting period is also prescribed before the patient can receive euthanasia.
New support for vulnerable young people from indigenous peoples
The government is allocating 70 million Canadian dollars to improve health and prevent suicide among indigenous peoples living in reserves or territories. This happens, among other things, after a series of deaths among young people in Attawapiskat in northern Ontario as a result of suicide and drug overdoses.
Abu Sayyaf kills Canadian hostage
The Islamist rebel movement Abu Sayyaf executes a Canadian man Robert Hall who was kidnapped by them in September 2015. The rebels had threatened to kill Hall unless a multi- million dollar ransom was paid last June 13 (see also April 2016).
City is evacuated due to forest fire
An extensive forest fire is causing about 80,000 people to leave their homes in the oil town of Fort McMurray, Alberta Province. Over 2,000 homes are destroyed in the fire that broke out on May 3. Prime Minister Trudeau visits the province a week into May. He is criticized for not having visited the area before, and for not linking the same fire to climate change, but talking more about what the federal government can do to help those affected by the fire. Researchers have warned that the number of large forest fires in Canada will increase as temperatures rise. On May 16, it still burns in an area of over 2,400 square miles, and it is expected to take several more weeks before all fire has extinguished. Reports also indicate that the fire has spread across the provincial border to Saskatchewan.
Canada adopts UN Declaration on Indigenous Rights
After nine years, Canada decides to adopt the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and emphasizes that its principles should be inscribed in the Canadian Constitution (see also Indigenous Rights).
Filipino Abu Sayyaf kills Canadian hostage
A Canadian man, John Ridsdel, who, along with three others, was kidnapped by Islamist group Abu Sayyaf from a tourist resort near the city of Davao in 2015 is executed by the rebels. Abu Sayyaf has requested a ransom for Ridsdel, but the Canadian government says it does not give in to such demands, and thus sticks to the same line as the former Conservative government. Just a few hours after the deadline expires Ridsdel is executed.
Canada signs climate agreement
Trudeau signs the Paris climate agreement This will take place at a ceremony in the UN building in New York. The Canadian government has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent by 2030 compared to the 2005 level. The level was set by the former Conservative government, but Trudeau now says it should be seen as a “floor” and not a “ceiling” for Canada’s ambitions.
High opinion rates for Trudeau
As many as 58 percent of voters believe polls indicate that Liberal Prime Minister Justin Trudeau is doing a good job. Support has also increased for the Liberal Party since the election.
Preparing legalization of marijuana
Health Minister Jane Philpott says the government should prepare a bill to legalize marijuana in 2017. The purpose, according to the minister, is to “ensure that children do not have access to marijuana and that criminals are not allowed to make big profits on sales. for medical use is already allowed in Canada.
Progressive Conservative Party wins in Manitoba
Progressive Conservatova Party (PCP) defeats NDP which has ruled the province since 1999. PCP receives 40 of the 53 seats
NDP leaders are allowed to leave
NDP’s Thomas Mulcair is set aside at a party convention. He will remain in office until a successor has been appointed in 2017 or 2018. According to some critics, he has led the party too far towards the center during the 2015 election campaign.
Conservative electoral victory in the provincial elections in Saskatchewan
The conservative Saskatchewan Party and its leader Brad Wall retain power in Saskatchewan. This is the third consecutive provincial election that the party wins.
More money for education and families in a new budget
The government’s budget shows a deficit of just over 29 billion Canadian dollars. An extra investment is made in educating the indigenous peoples, that the country will receive an additional 10,000 refugees over five years, a new tax-free child allowance will be introduced and the study support will be increased for students from low- and middle-income families. In addition, a number of new infrastructure investments are promised, both in terms of building new housing intended for low-income people, waste management and transport systems, including a new commuter train system around Vancouver. The government announces that it will take at least five years to get the budget in balance. Statistics show that Canada’s economy has started to grow again at the end of 2015.
Trudeau to the White House
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau makes an official visit to the United States. Obama and Trudeau are discussing issues such as clean energy and ways to increase investment.
Bombers are withdrawn from Iraq and Syria
In the middle of the month, Canada stops its aerial bombings of the areas controlled by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. However, two recovery plans will remain as part of the international operation against the extreme group. Canada will instead focus more on humanitarian aid and training Kurdish military forces.
Canadian weapons off the beaten track?
Suspicions are raised that Canadian weapons have landed in the hands of rebel groups in Yemen. According to Canadian media, these may be light weapons previously sold to Saudi Arabia. The Canadian arms industry is extensive, but it is difficult to get a comprehensive picture of how much of the production is exported. The Conservative government approved the sale of light armored cars to Saudi Arabia, an order worth 15 billion Canadian dollars, despite the country’s lack of human rights. The Liberal government has promised greater transparency in arms exports and is launching an investigation to find out how Canadian weapons ended up in Yemen.
“I’m a feminist”
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau is making an appearance during the World Economic Forum in Davos, where he says he is a feminist and that feminism is needed for politicians and business representatives to make better decisions.