+54 is the dialing code for Argentina.
Argentina, much like Western Europe, holds within its borders mountains and jungles, vast plains and icy polar regions. Flattering tango and well-hung steaks are one of the symbols of this country characterized by European immigration and whose economy is traditionally based on livestock farming and agriculture. Politically, Argentina has been shaped by military dictatorships as well as by the ideology called Peronism, after Juan Perón, president in 1946–1955 and 1973–1974. The Peronist Party has long been divided into several factions.
- Abbreviationfinder: Brief profiles of Argentina, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Argentina is Latin America’s second largest country and, on the surface, is about the same size as Western Europe. The country has been named by the Latin word argentum (silver), which refers to the narrow bay of Río de la Plata, the Silver River in Spanish, which lies as a wedge between Argentina and Uruguay. The climate changes from subtropical in the north to almost arctic in the south. However, most of the country has a temperate climate.
At the far south is the archipelago of Eldslandet, whose eastern part belongs to Argentina. Ushuaia in the Land of Fire is the world’s southernmost city. To the north, Patagonia is spreading with semi-desert, constantly windswept high plateaus. There is the salty Laguna del Carbón, which is Latin America’s lowest point, 105 meters below sea level. Patagonia extends to the Colorado River in the middle of the country. North of the river and east towards the Atlantic, the vast and populous prairie area of Pampas spreads with moderate rainfall, pleasant temperature and fertile soil. However, in its westernmost part there is a much drier climate.
In western Argentina there is South America’s highest peak, Cerro Aconcagua, which reaches almost 7,000 meters above sea level. Further south, the mountains are lower and rarely reach over 3,600 meters above sea level. The mountain range of Bergen in the Sierra de Córdoba in the middle part of the country is even lower.
|Cultivated land||53.9 %|
|Land area||2780400 km 2|
Population and health
|Population development||0.93 ‰|
|Urban population (Urbanization)||91.8 %|
|Death rate||7.33 per 1000 residents|
|Life expectancy: Women||81.09 years|
|Life expectancy: Men||74.46 years|
|Birth rate||16.64 births per 1000 residents|
|Infant mortality||9.69 deaths / 1000 births|
Population Graph Source: Countryaah.com
|Electricity, production||127900 million kWh|
|Energy consumption per resident||1906.1 kg. oil per resident|
|Natural gas, production||36890 million cubic meters|
|Crude oil, production||30 million tons|
|Internet users||59.7 per 100 residents|
|Mobile subscriptions||154 per 100 residents|
|Passenger cars||314 per 1000 residents|
Business and economics
|Unemployment||7.6% of the workforce|
|GDP||22600 per resident|
|Primary occupations||5 %|
|Secondary profession||23 %|
|Tertiary professions||72 %|
North of Pampas and west of the Paraná River lies a vast, partly wooded savannah landscape, Gran Chaco. To the northeast, between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, is a hilly area, called Mesopotamia, with temperate climate in the south and subtropical humidity in the north.
To the east of Paraná, tropical rainforests are spreading. Along the mountain range of Andes in the northwest, the precipitation is low. In the far north, the dry and cold Pana highlands extend beyond the borders of Bolivia and Chile.
Argentina also claims the British Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Southern Georgia and the Sandwich Islands as well as a one million square kilometer area in the Antarctic (in competition with Chile and the United Kingdom).
Almost one fifth of the land area is covered by forest, and 52 percent is grazing land. Wildlife varies widely from tapirs, monkeys and parrots in the north to marsupials, belts, deer and llamas further south.
The climate changes from subtropical in the north to almost arctic in the south. However, most of the country has a temperate climate. In Pampas it is mild, in winter time the temperature rarely goes below zero and in summer (in January-February) the temperature is usually above 20 degrees. On the coast, the humidity is high, but inland the climate is drier and the temperature changes clearer. It rains mostly in the northern parts.
Pampas and the northeastern part of the country mainly suffer from cold and hard winds, so-called pamperos, between July and September.
FACTS – GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
2 780 400 km2 (2018)
Swedish – 4 hours
Adjacent country (s)
Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Chile
Capital with number of residents
Buenos Aires 14,215,000
Other major cities
Córdoba 1 4446 000, Rosario 1 284 000, Salta 623 000, Tucumán 602 000 estimate July 2019)
Aconcagua (6,959 m asl)
Salado del Norte, Parana, Bermejo-Desaguadero-Salado, Uruguya, Colorado, Rio Negro
Average Precipitation / month
Buenos Aires 109 mm (March), 56 mm (July)
Average / day
Buenos Aires 24 °C (Jan), 11 °C (June)
Prosecution of ex-president is suspended
The indictment against former President Fernando de la Rua is closed. He had been accused of causing the death of five people in connection with protests surrounding the economic crisis in 2001. According to the court, de la Rua had legitimate grounds for announcing emergency permits. He is also charged with bribing several senators before an important vote in Congress in 2000. De la Rua rejects this and claims that the trial against him is politically motivated.
Former finance minister is convicted of corruption
Felisa Miceli, Minister of Finance under Néstor Kirchner, is sentenced to four years in prison for corruption. She is also prohibited from holding a public office for eight years. She resigned from her post in 2007 after a routine check by police found the equivalent of $ 52,000 in a package in her bathroom.
Former Minister of the Interior is convicted of crimes against humanity
Former Interior Minister of Buenos Aires Province, Jaime Smart, is sentenced to life imprisonment for crimes against humanity during the military dictatorship 1976-1983. He is the first civilian to be convicted of participating in the “dirty war”. He is convicted of involvement in torture and murder of opposites in illegal detention.
Sixty soldiers face trial for “dirty war”
A trial of 68 officers charged with crimes under the dictatorship will begin at the end of the month. This is the largest trial for crimes committed during the “dirty war” held in Argentina. Among the defendants is Alfredo Astiz, who was called “the blonde angel of death”, and who is suspected of murdering 17-year-old Swedish Argentine Dagmar Hagelin in 1977.
Setback for Argentina in US court
A US court decides that Argentina must repay $ 1.3 billion to lenders before December 15. This is in accordance with demands from two investment companies that did not agree to the IMF debt write- off agreements negotiated in 2005 and 2010. However, Argentina announces that it does not intend to follow the court’s decision. At the end of the month, the Argentinians receive some respite from the court to be able to bring their case.
Strikes hit Buenos Aires
Large parts of the capital have been paralyzed since the two largest unions announced a strike in protest of government policy. Among other things, trade union organizations demand that income tax be lowered.
Tens of thousands participate in protests against the government
Tens of thousands of people gather in Buenos Aires to protest rising inflation, high crime rates, several high-level corruption cases and the continued restrictions on dollar trade. Plans to change the constitution to allow the president to be re-elected for a third term also cause dissatisfaction. According to the organizers, the demonstration has gathered 700,000 people, according to the government they are only 70,000.
The voting age is reduced to 16 years
The Chamber of Deputies votes to lower the voting age from 18 years to 16 years. The amendment, which has already been approved by the Senate, comes into force as of the 2013 parliamentary elections.
Marine vessels are seized in Ghana
One of the navy’s training vessels will be seized in Ghana on October 2 following a request from the NML Capital Fund. The fund claims that Argentina owes it over $ 300 million for bonds it bought in 2000.
Argentina risks sanctions from the IMF
IMF chief Christine Lagarde warns Argentina that the country risks sanctions if reliable statistics on growth and inflation cannot be produced before December 17. According to official Argentine figures, inflation is 10 percent per year, but according to many economists it is at least twice as high.
Former junta leaders are sentenced to long prison terms
Two former junta leaders, Jorge Videla and Reynaldo Bignone, are sentenced to 50 years and 15 years in prison for their role in the so-called stolen children during the dictatorship years.
Trade union protest against toughening economic conditions
At the end of the month, the national organization CGT is organizing a protest outside the presidential palace. Protesters demand to avoid having to pay income tax to compensate for the loss of purchasing power due to high inflation. Driving the protest is CGT leader Hugo Moyano.
The UN commander promises to mediate in the Falklands conflict
In the middle of the month, President Fernández de Kirchner speaks to the UN Decolonization Committee, arguing that the Falkland Islands should belong to Argentina. At the same time, in the Falkland Islands, a referendum on the status of the islands will be held in 2013. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon has promised to mediate between Argentina and the UK.
New currency restrictions are introduced
The government introduces new temporary restrictions on citizens’ opportunities to buy dollars. To set a good example, President Fernández de Kirchner says she will transfer some of her own savings, around $ 3 million, to bank accounts counted in pesos. She urges her ministers and supporters to do the same. According to analysts, currency restrictions cause concern mainly among the middle class. According to some analysts, confidence in pesos will not be able to increase if the government fails to cope with high inflation.
Corruption charges against the Vice President
Vice President Amado Boudou is charged with money laundering and corruption. The opposition demands his departure.
The government states part of Spanish oil company
The government decides to nationalize just over half of the oil company YPF, which is largely owned by Spanish Repsol. The decision is heavily criticized by Spain, the European Commission, the United States and several other countries. According to media reports, Repsol is to demand at least $ 10 billion in compensation for its shares in the company. The decision is approved shortly afterwards by both chambers of Congress. The government also strongly supports the measure among most of the opposition parties. The EU is turning to the WTO at the end of May to complain that Argentina has imposed a number of import restrictions.
Strong support for talks on the Falkland Islands
All congressional parties except two small ones support the government’s attempt to start talks with Britain about the Falkland Islands. Argentina is turning to the UN with a formal complaint against what one sees as the British militarization of the waters around the archipelago.