Tajikistan is located in Central Asia and
consists of nine tenths of hard-to-reach mountain
terrain. The country was part of the Soviet Union until
its dissolution in 1991. During the 1990s, a civil war
raged between the Moscow-based government army and an
alliance of Islamists and nationalists. Tajikistan has
major economic problems that are exacerbated by the fact
that it is a transit country for drug smuggling from
Afghanistan. A cult of personality has been built around
President Emomali Rahmon, who has ruled the country
Brief profiles of Tajikistan, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Mountain country Tajikistan is located in
Central Asia and is about a third as large as Sweden.
The country has a mainly inland climate, with large
differences in temperature between summer and winter.
The climate also varies greatly with the height above
Tajikistan has borders with Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan
in the west and north, China in the east and Afghanistan
in the south. Most of the country consists of mountains.
More than half of the land area is more than 3,000
meters above sea level.
The majority of the population lives in two more
low-lying areas in the western part of the country. In
the northwest, a narrow country end extends north and
into the fertile Fergana Valley. The city of Chudzhand
is the center of the region and is located at the
entrance to the valley, which is shared between
Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Fergana is one of
Central Asia's most fertile and densely populated areas.
High mountains separate the area from the country's
southwest, where the capital Dushanbe lies as well as
the larger cities of Kulob and Qurghonteppa (formerly
Kuljab and Kurgan-Tjube with more Russian form).
The eastern half of Tajikistan consists mainly of the
autonomous area of Köhistoni Badachsjon (formerly
called Gorno-Badachshan) with the capital Chorog. It is
a poor, isolated and sparsely populated area, located
almost entirely in the high Pamir Mountains (roof of the
world). There are mountain peaks over 7,000 meters. The
Fedtchenko glacier is the largest in the world outside
the polar regions. A large number of rivers flow from
the mountains, which provide both electricity and the
opportunity for small cultivations along the slopes.
Most of the long border with Afghanistan in the south
is the Pandzh River, which becomes Amu-Darja when it
merges with Vachsj in the southwest. Amu-Darja, the
largest river in Central Asia, then flows through
Uzbekistan into the Aral Sea.
In lower areas, the average temperature in the middle
of summer can be 35-40 degrees. In the mountains, the
average temperature in winter can be below 20 minus
degrees and in some cases the thermometer shows below 45
The annual rainfall is not great anywhere, but snow
in the mountains can make it impossible to get along for
FACTS - GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
143 100 km2 (2018)
Swedish +3 hours
Adjacent country (s)
Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Afghanistan
Capital with number of residents
Dusjanbe 893 800 (with suburbs, UN estimate 2019)
Other major cities
Chudzhand, Kulob, Bokhtar (formerly Qurghonteppa)
Pik Ismoil Somoni (7 495 m asl)
Amu-Darja, Syr-Darja, Zarafsjon
Average Precipitation / month
Showers 137 mm (March), 1 mm (Aug)
Average / day
Dushanbe 0 °C (Jan), 27 °C (July)
Elections are announced
President Rahmon signs a decree that elections to the lower house and
municipalities will be held on March 1, and elections to the upper house on
March 27, 2015.
Chinese investment agreement
On a visit to China, President Rahmon signs an agreement with the province of
Henan on investments of $ 800 million in Tajik agriculture. Preliminary
agreements must also have been concluded on Chinese investments in a gas
pipeline, a hydroelectric plant and a railway in Tajikistan.
Opposition group is prohibited
The opposition Movement Group 24 (see December 2012) is believed to be behind
a call via social media to demonstrate against the regime. There is not much
that indicates any major support, but the authorities are responding strongly.
Several relatives of one of the movement's exiled leaders are arrested by
police, for a few days hundreds of internet sites are blocked and it becomes
temporarily impossible to send text messages. Group 24 is declared illegal by
Increased exports to Russia
Since Moscow halted imports of goods from the Western world, in response to
its sanctions on Russia, the government of Dushanbe states that Tajikistan's
exports of fruits and vegetables to Russia should increase substantially.
A summit within the regional cooperation organization SCO (see Foreign Policy
and Defense) is held in Dushanbe. Rahmon discusses increased trade and other
economic cooperation with his Russian colleague Vladimir Putin, and makes a
joint statement with China's President Xi Jinping on deepening cooperation with
the neighboring country in the east.
Industrial zone is planned
Tajikistan enters into an agreement with a Chinese company to set up a
700,000-square-foot Sino-Tajik industrial zone to accommodate around 180
Storm Muftin supports the regime
The country's highest religious leader, Grand Mufti Saidmukarram
Abdulkodirzoda, states in a fatwa (religious injunction) that it is "a great sin
to criticize the rulers". Fatwan is proclaimed by all to be judged in
consultation with the government, which is troubled by the radicalization among
Prison for terrorist plans
The Supreme Court sentenced seven men to prison for between 18 and 22 years
for planning a terror attack on the Talco aluminum plant, the largest in Central
Asia. All are ethnic uz cups and reside in the district where Talco is located.
At least one of them must have been employed by the company.
Worried about the border province
New unrest is reported in Köhistoni Badachsjon following a clash between
police and suspected drug smugglers.
Islamist leaders arrested
The Islamic renewal party's leader in Köhistoni Badachsjon, Saudatsjo
Adolatshuyev, is arrested and accused of being stirred up for "religious
enmity". The regime's pressure on the party seems to be increasing.
Fines for Lenin quotes
The media organization Asia Plus and editor Olga Tutubalina
are sentenced to publish an apology and pay a fine since she quoted Lenin in
connection with criticism directed at the country's intellectual elite, which
she finds too disappointing against Rahmon.
Eight are injured in firefighting in the enclave
A total of eight guards on both sides of the border are injured when gunfire
erupts in Voruch, a Tajik excavator in Kyrgyzstan (see April 2013).
Dangerous music is prohibited
The mayor of Dushanbe forbids music that is "foreign to national and
universal human values" from being played within the capital's general transport
system. This applies, among other things, to songs that commemorate crime, which
make sexual allusions or which propagate for "non-traditional Islam".