The Sultanate of Oman is located in the
southeast corner of the Arabian Peninsula. The country,
which is mainly desert, is an absolute monarchy and has
been governed by the Al Said family since the 18th
century. Large oil resources have contributed to rapid
development, but the economy is more varied than in
several of the neighboring countries. Tourism is the
fastest growing industry.
Brief profiles of Oman, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Oman is located on the Arabian Peninsula and
has a long coast towards the Indian Ocean in the east
and towards the Oman Bay in the north.
Two areas belonging to Oman are separated from the rest
of the country by the United Arab Emirates.
One of the two areas is the mountainous outermost tip
of the Musandam Peninsula, which extends into the
strategically important Strait of Hormuz. The other is a
small enclave, Wadi Madha, which lies further into the
The landscape comprises four-fifths of the
inhospitable desert. The inland is dominated by a barren
mountain and highland area, which is intersected by
dried-up river valleys. The most important mountain
range is the Hajar Mountains, which run parallel to the
coast from the Musandam Peninsula along the Oman Bay.
The strip of land between the mountains and the coast is
called al-Batina and is the most densely populated area
in Oman. The coast is lowland and relatively fertile.
The difference between coast and inland has
characterized the country's history.
The border with Saudi Arabia in the west goes through
the almost uninhabited sand desert al-Rub al-Khali. The
province of Dhofar in the south is separated from the
rest of the country by the desert and a wooded mountain
range. The country also includes the Kuria-Muria Islands
and the island of Masira.
The climate in Oman is subtropical with hot, dry
summers and mild winters with rain. On the coast it is
very hot and humid between April and September, while
the winter season has a more pleasant climate.
Precipitation, which the southwest monsoon brings,
falls mainly on the coast and in the southern province
of Dhofar. The highland part of the hinterland also
receives some rain.
212,500 km2 (2018)
Swedish + 3 hours
Adjacent country (s)
United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
Capital with number of inhabitants
Musqat (125,000 inhabitants, estimated 2012)
Other major cities
Salala, al-Seeb, Mutrah, Suhar
Jabal shams (3,018 m asl)
Choice for the lower house
Elections are held for the consultative lower house.
Journalists receive imprisonment for insult
In September, two journalists are sentenced to five months in prison for
insulting the country's Minister of Justice. Two newspapers are forced to close
for a month to have published articles accusing the Justice Department of
Demonstrator is shot to death
A demonstrator is shot to death by police in connection with protest actions
in favor of incarcerated activists.
The wave of protest rings off
When the protests ended, the Sultan issued 40 different decrees to meet the
Increased powers for the police
The Sultan gives the police greater powers, among other things, to make it
easier to arrest suspects.
The police go into tent camps
15th of May
Police disband a tent camp outside the parliament building in Musqat and
15-20 activists are arrested.
Clash in Suhar
A demonstrator is killed and eight injured in clashes with police in the city
of Suhar. Over 50 protesters are arrested.
Oman is promised financial support
Oman is promised $ 10 billion in financial support from the other five GCC
members. The support will go to the government to create jobs, build housing and
improve infrastructure, in response to protesters' demands.
The protest wave continues
As the protests continue despite the Sultan's promises, he responds by
carrying out the largest government reform in 40 years. The response from the
protesters is overwhelmingly positive, even though they require more ministers
Protest scales meet with government promises
The wave of protests in the Arab world, which has undergone authoritarian
regimes in North Africa on a fall, also reaches Oman. At least one protester
(according to some sources six people) has been killed since police opened fire
in connection with protests in the port city of Suhar. Protests are also being
conducted in Salala and Musqat. The government responds with promises of new
jobs, an increase in the minimum wage for Omani and increased unemployment
benefits. The Sultan is also trying to appease the protesters by replacing two
ministers in the government and promising to explore the possibilities of giving
the lower house greater influence.
Spy networks are revealed
Omani authorities reveal a spy network that is said to work for the United
Arab Emirates. The neighboring country, with which Oman normally has good
relations, denies all charges of espionage.