Norway is Europe's northernmost country with a
scenic landscape of fjords and mountains. The old
fishing and seafaring nation has, with its large assets
of oil and natural gas, developed into one of the
richest countries in the world.
Brief profiles of Norway, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Norway and Europe's northernmost point is
Knivskjellodden on Magerøya. The country is located in
northwestern Europe with coast to the Atlantic in the
west and the North Arctic Ocean in the north. The
country borders Sweden in the east and Finland and
Russia in the northeast.
The landscape is dominated by the Scandinavian
mountain range and by large high plateaus. The highest
mountains are found in Jotunheimen with more than a
hundred peaks over 2,000 meters. The 265 km long coast
is the disintegration of a large number of deep fjords,
which are surrounded by mountains and mountains. Less
than a quarter of the land area is wooded and almost
three percent is cultivated, mainly in the southeast
and in the river valleys. Six percent of the land area
is covered by lakes and streams.
Norway is divided into Eastern Norway, Southern
Norway, Western Norway, Trøndelag and Northern Norway.
Lowland areas are found in Trøndelag around the
Trondheim Fjord and in Sørlandet. Vestlandet is largely
covered by glaciers (glaciers). Østlandet is
characterized by long valleys, which run in a southerly
and south-easterly direction. Perhaps the best known is
In Northern Norway lies the plateau Finnmarksvidda.
Also included is the archipelago of Svalbard (read more
here) and the island of Jan Mayen in the North Atlantic,
Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic, Peter I's Island in
the South Pacific and Queen Maud's land, which is a
sector in the Antarctic.
Norway is strongly affected by the Gulf Stream in the
Atlantic, which makes the climate milder than it would
otherwise have been so far north. At Lofoten, the
average temperature in January is 24 degrees higher than
is normal for that latitude.
The temperature does not vary much between seasons.
However, the temperature varies greatly between the
northern and southern parts of the country, as well as
between the coast and inland. The coldest is in
Østlandet and Finnmarksvidda, where it is not uncommon
for the temperature to fall below 40 minus degrees.
Winters are also relatively mild. Then the ice can
settle in the longest fjords, otherwise the coast in the
west is virtually ice-free up to the north. The inner
parts of Norway are usually snow-covered during the
FACTS - GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
323 878 km2 (2018)
Adjacent country (s)
Sweden, Finland, Russia
Capital with number of inhabitants
Oslo 647 700 (2015)
Other major cities
Bergen 275 100, Trondheim 185 000, Stavanger 132 100
Galdhopiggen (2469 m asl)
Average Precipitation / month
Oslo 90 mm (sept), 36 mm (feb)
Average / day
Oslo 16 °C (July), –4 °C (Jan)
Norway intensifies the fight against right-wing
Foreign Minister Eide announces that Norwegian
Foreign Ministry, through its diplomats, will gather
information on right-wing extremes in Europe. Norway
must clearly express its attitude towards right-wing
extremism, racism and xenophobia. According to Eide,
Norway has a special responsibility in view of the
right-wing terrorist acts in Oslo and Utøya in 2011.
Stoltenberg reforms his government
Espen Barth Eide leaves the post of defense minister
to become new foreign minister after Jonas Gahr Støre,
who will take care of the problematic Ministry of
Breivik receives life imprisonment
On August 24, Anders Behring Breivik is sentenced to
the strictest sentence of the law, 21 years in prison
with the possibility of extension five years at a time
as long as the convicted person is considered a danger
to society. A unanimous right explains that Breivik is
punishable by criminal law, a ruling that is welcomed by
both the victims of the murder victims and the Norwegian
Government reform, new Foreign Minister
Defense Minister Espen Barth Eide is appointed
Foreign Minister. New Minister of Defense becomes Anne-Grete
The chief of police resigns
In the wake of the July 22 Commission report,
Norway's highest police chief, Chief of Police Öystein
Maeland, resigns. The Minister of Justice and other
high-ranking politicians do not want to express their
full confidence in him.
Stoltenberg takes on the responsibility
In a comment on the July 22 Commission report, Prime
Minister Stoltenberg says that he, as head of
government, is ultimately responsible for the
shortcomings that exist in the state apparatus. He calls
for an extra session in the Storting to discuss the
consequences of the report's conclusions.
Defamatory criticism of the police
The July 22 Commission, appointed by the government,
publishes its report on the terrorist attacks in Oslo
and Utøya (see July 2011). The police
receive sharp criticism for poorly organized work and a
number of shortcomings in the efforts against Breivik.
The criticism ranges from lack of routines and
communication problems to poor preparedness and failing
judgments in individuals. With better organized police
work, Breivik could have been stopped earlier, according
to the commission. The attack on the government building
in Oslo could have been completely avoided if the
existing security regulations had been followed. A
faster police response to Utøya would also have been
possible, according to the commission.
The government cancels strike among oil workers
The government is using its extraordinary powers to
stop a strike among oil workers. After 16 days, the
government orders the workers back to work in the
interests of the nation.
Unclear about Breivik's health condition
After almost ten weeks of negotiations, the
prosecutor declares that Breivik is mentally ill and
should be sentenced to closed psychiatric care. Forensic
psychiatrists and lawyers are divided on Breivik's
mental health. The defense claims that Breivik is
criminally accountable and should be sentenced to
Major strike among government employees
On May 24, more than 30,000 civil servants embark on
a nationwide strike for higher wages and better working
The trial of Breivik begins
The trial against Breivik will be prolonged and
painful for the survivors and relatives gathered in the
courtroom. Many testify about the perpetrator's
brutality on Utøya. The trial is televised and many
viewers are upset over the perpetrator's emotional
The electoral support for the Labor Party drops
In a poll, the large government party receives 29
percent of voter support, compared to 32 percent for
Høyre. The Progress Party stays at 14 percent.
Mulla Krekar receives five years in prison
Terrorist-suspected Islamist leader Mulla Krekar is
sentenced to five years in prison for murder, terrorist
threat and solicitation for crime.
Socialist Left Party switches leaders
Kristin Halvorsen resigns as leader of the Socialist
Left Party after 15 years in the post. Audun Lysbakken
is elected new party leader.