Nepal is on the southern slope of the Himalayas,
squeezed between the great nations of China and India.
The world's highest mountain, Mount Everest, is on the
border with Tibet. Over 100 people groups give Nepal a
rich cultural life. For ten years, Maoist guerrillas
fought an armed uprising against the monarchical royal
house. The Maoists were eventually able to drive away
the royal family and Nepal became a democratic republic
Brief profiles of Nepal, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Nepal is one third the size of Sweden and
lies on the southern slope of the Himalayas down to the
Indian plain. In the north-south direction, the country
extends only about 20 miles, but the altitude difference
is enormous: from the world's highest point on Mount
Everest to only 60 meters above sea level. The climate
varies greatly with the height above the sea.
The southernmost part, Terai (or Madhesh), originally
consisted of jungle but it is now largely replaced with
cultivations. In the forests and plains that remain
there is a rich wildlife with tigers, rhinos, elephants,
buffalo, crocodiles and more. Half of the Nepalese live
Most of the rest of the population is found in the
valleys and mountainous regions of central Nepal.
Kathmandu Valley, where the capital is located, has long
been the political center of the country.
Residents are few in the northernmost region, along
the border with the Chinese region of Tibet, where large
areas are constantly snow-covered. There is Mount
Everest (which the Nepalese call Sagarmatha) and another
seven of the world's ten highest mountains, all over
In the west-east direction, the country can be
divided into three major river systems - Karnali,
Narayani and Kosi - all of which originate in the Ganges
in northern India.
The plain of Terai in the south has a hot and humid
monsoon climate with cool summer rain. Sub-tropical
climate prevails in the Kathmandu valley (1,350 meters
above sea level) in central Nepal. In the high mountains
in the north it is dry and very cold.
FACTS - GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
147 181 km2 (2018)
Swedish +4 hours and 45 minutes
Adjacent country (s)
Capital with number of inhabitants
Kathmandu 1,200,000 (UN estimate 2015)
Other major cities
Pokhara 329,400 (UN Census 2015)
Mount Everest (8,848 m asl)
Karnali, Narayani, Kosi
Average Precipitation / month
Kathmandu 373 mm (July), 3 mm (Dec)
Average / day
Kathmandu 25 °C (July), 10 °C (Jan)
The new election is postponed
Nepal's transitional government decides that the planned new elections to the
Constituent Assembly (in effect the country's parliament) should be postponed
from November 2012 to May 2013. The major political parties agree that until now
the country will be led by a transitional government, but they are arguing about
how this should be be composed. The opposition NC does not recognize the sitting
Outbreak from the governing UCPN-M
A faction within the Maoist ruling party breaks loose and forms its own
party, Nepal's Communist Party Maoists (CPN-M) (see January 2009).
The Supreme Court rejects an extended mandate
When the Constituent Assembly once again wants to extend its own mandate to
continue working on the unfinished constitutional proposal, the Supreme Court
finally intervenes and stops this. Prime Minister Bhattarai is forced to
announce new elections, until November 22, 2012. The country will until then be
led by a transitional government with Bhattarai in the lead. The uncertain
political situation triggers violent popular protests, which are dispelled by
the riot police.
Bhattarai forms a unity government
A step towards national reconciliation is reached when the Bhattarai
government succeeds in getting the opposition parties NC and UML to join an
extended "unity government for national unity".
The army takes control of the rebel camps
The army enters and takes control of the camps where former rebels have been
staying since the end of the war in 2006. The rebels leave the camps to re-adapt
to a peaceful society. The emptying of the camps is seen as an important step in
the ongoing peace process.