Mozambique on the east coast of South Africa
suffered the liberation war from Portugal and a bloody
civil war before peace was concluded in 1992. Around one
million people had lost their lives. The country has
since enjoyed relatively good economic development and
political stability. A large part of the inhabitants are
still living in great poverty. The Socialist Frelimo who
took power in independence first ruled in a one-party
state and later won in free elections.
Brief profiles of Mozambique, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Mozambique is almost twice the size of Sweden
and extends along the southern part of Africa's east
coast. There are several white sandy beaches along the
country's nearly 250 km long coast.
Along the coast runs a plain that extends southwards
inland. Inside the plain, a hilly plateau landscape
rises. In the western border areas highlands dominate
between 1000 and 2000 meters in height. The landscape is
largely made up of savannah, but the mountain regions
Of several rivers with outflows in the Indian Ocean,
the largest are Zambezi and Limpopo. The huge Great Rift
Valley tomb extends northwards into Mozambique and ends
at the lower course of the Zambezi River.
Northern Mozambique has a warm and humid tropical
climate, while in the south it is rainy and sunny. The
country is periodically affected by drought.
During the rainy season from October to March, the
average temperature is up to 30 degrees, with the
exception of the cooler highlands in the country's
interior. The rest of the year is a dry period with just
under 20 degrees in June and July.
The rainfall varies widely between different parts of
the country, from an average of 400 mm per year in the
southern part to just over 2,000 mm annually in the
highland areas in the west. Around the capital Maputo
farthest south, rapid weather changes with wind, rain
and thunder are not uncommon.
799 380 km2 (2018)
Swedish + 1 hour
Adjacent country (s)
Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa,
Capital with number of inhabitants
Maputo 1 100,000 (Estimated 2010)
Other major cities
Nampula 534 800, Beira 440 400, Chimoio 259 000,
Nacala 221 300 (Estimated 2010)
Binga (2436 m asl)
Zambezi, Limpopo, Ruvuma, Save
The power struggle continues
Renamo continues to attack the national security forces in violation of the
ceasefire (see September 2014). The dialogue with the
government leads nowhere. Renamo refuses to be disarmed and demands to have the
same influence over state companies as the Frelimo government party. For its
part, the government is trying to weaken Renamo by attracting Renamo soldiers
with offers of high positions in the national army and police.
New threats from Renamo after deadlock
In light of the deadlock in the talks about sharing power with the
government, Renamo threatens to block the main road connecting northern and
southern Mozambique. Renamo also threatens to evict government officials from
the provinces in the north. In recent months, Renamo's soldiers have increased
the number of attacks against government forces, and the play can be seen as a
way for Dhlakama to calm the armed branch of the movement.
Same-sex relationships are legalized
Parliament abolishes a law aimed at homosexuals. According to the law, it was
criminal to carry "loads contrary to nature". No one has been prosecuted in
modern times for violating the law, but the change in the law means that it is
now legally legal for same-sex relationships in Mozambique.
26 countries enter into new free trade agreement
Mozambique and 25 other countries agree on a new free trade agreement, the
Tripartite Free Trade Area, which covers most of Africa between Egypt in the
north and South Africa in the south. However, before the agreement can come into
force, negotiations are required and the agreement is approved by the
parliaments of the countries.
No to autonomy for provinces
Parliament approves Renamo's legislative proposal for increased autonomy for
some provinces (see March 2015).
The annual budget is presented
Finance Minister Adriano Maleiane presents the budget for 2015. The budget
deficit is down compared to 2014. Foreign aid is also declining. The gap is
covered by increased foreign loans. The largest item of expenditure is, like
previous education, which receives 20 percent of the cake. In second place,
health care comes with ten percent.
Large investments will create jobs
Parliament adopts a five-year plan under which 1.5 million new jobs will be
created through investments in manufacturing and infrastructure. The investments
will be financed through coal extraction and exploitation of the country's
natural gas resources. According to the plan, Mozambique will have growth of
between 7 and 8 percent during the period and inflation should be below 10
percent. Foreign assessors describe the plan as over-optimistic.
Renamo wants to give provinces independence
Renamo is drafting a bill to give six mineral-rich provinces in northern and
central Mozambique autonomy.
The President takes over as President of Frelimo
Ex-President Armando Guebuza hands over Frelimo's presidency to new President
Further tensions after murder
New tensions arise between Frelimo and Renamo when one of the country's most
prominent lawyers is shot to death by unknown men in the capital. The lawyer who
was an expert on constitutional issues had supported a proposal from Renamo to
give the provinces greater autonomy. Renamo accuses the government of being
behind the murder.
160 perish in floods
In January, Mozambique is affected by extensive flooding that requires around
160 lives and makes almost 160,000 people homeless.
Renamo boycott the presidential accession
Renamo boycott Parliament's opening and installation of Filipe Nyusi as
President on January 15. The new government is slimmed down to 13 ministers and
the list contains only members of the Free State. Dhlakama does not recognize
the government and threatens to establish a parallel government in the provinces
where Renamo has a majority. After negotiations, Dhlakama and Nyusi agree to
refer the issue of greater autonomy for the provinces to Parliament. Dhlakama
says he is very pleased with the outcome of the talks and Renamo is raising his
boycott of Parliament.