The mountainous Montenegro was the least of the
six sub-republics that made up Yugoslavia. The country
became independent only in 2006, when it broke out of a
union with Serbia after a referendum. Montenegro has a
coast towards the Adriatic and is politically open to
Western Europe as a candidate for membership in the EU.
Brief profiles of Montenegro, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Montenegro in the Balkan Peninsula in
southeastern Europe was the smallest of the six
sub-republics that were part of former Yugoslavia. It
has been an independent state since June 2006.
Montenegro means "Black Mountain" and the country is
mountainous as its name implies. Durmitor in the
northwest, which is part of the Dinaric Alps, has
mountain peaks over 2,500 meters and here the Tara River
has simultaneously created Europe's deepest ravines. The
country has a coast of almost 20 km along the Adriatic.
Around the capital Podgorica a plains landscape is
spreading. This extends down to Skadarsjön, which forms
a large part of the border with Albania. The plain
continues up towards the Gulf of Kotor, Europe's
southernmost fjord, near the border with Croatia.
The interior of Montenegro has an inland climate with
cold winters and hot, humid summers with evenly
distributed rainfall. On the coast there is a
Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and
relatively mild winters.
FACTS - GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
13 812 km2 (2018)
Adjacent country (s)
Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo and
Capital with number of inhabitants
Podgorica 195,500 inhabitants (2015)
Other major cities
Nikšic (70,800 inhabitants), Pljevlja, Bar (2015)
Bobotov Kuk (2523 meters above sea level)
Average Precipitation / month
Podgorica 18 mm (July), 147 mm (Nov)
Average / day
Podgorica 26 °C (July), 5 °C (Jan)
New government ready
One month after the parliamentary elections, Parliament approves a new
government under Duško Marković from the DPS. This happens since the 42 members
from the parties that are part of the government coalition vote for; the 39
members of the opposition parties are boycotting the new parliament, as they
feel that there has been voting fraud in the election. They also demand that the
trips around the alleged (and averted) coup attempt be investigated before
taking their seats in Parliament. In addition to the DPS, the new government
also includes the small Left Party SD (Social Democrats) and three small parties
representing the Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian minorities. By contrast, the
largest ethnic minority group, the Serbs, is in opposition.
Ten days after the parliamentary elections, the DPS decides to nominate Duško
Marković as a candidate to become new prime minister, provided the party gets
together a working majority in parliament. This means that after his long tenure
in power, Milo Ðukanović leaves politics (he has, however, done so before, but
returned, and during his absence ruled the scenes; it is also said that he will
now continue as party leader). Marković, who is close to Ðukanović, has been
Deputy Prime Minister and Head of the Intelligence Service.
The Socialist Party wins the parliamentary election
The ruling Democratic Socialist Party (DPS) gets 41 percent of the vote,
giving 36 of the 81 seats in Parliament. The Democratic Front (DF) and the Key
Coalition receive 20 percent (18 seats) and 11 percent (seats) respectively. The
turnout is just over 73 percent. Opposition parties claim that cheating has
occurred in the election.
Failed coup attempt is revealed before the election
Authorities state that a terrorist attack was averted when around 20 people
were arrested the day before the parliamentary elections. A group led by a
former commander of the Serbian special forces should have planned an attack on
people gathered outside the parliament building to find out the election
results. The plan is to take over Parliament and install "an appropriate party"
and arrest Prime Minister Milo Ðukanović.
Albanian alliance before the election
For the first time, the three largest Albanian parties in Montenegro decide
to come together in a coalition ahead of the October parliamentary elections.
The three - Forca, the Union of Albanians (UDSH) and the Albanian Alternative
Party - thus hope to be better able to preserve the Albanian identity, protect
and promote the Albanian language and national symbols, strengthen education in
Albanian and bring about decentralization as well as an improvement of the
Albanians. social and economic conditions in the country. According to the 2011
census, the Albanian minority constitutes just under five percent of
Violent worker protests
Police meet with former employees of the KAP aluminum plant, who for several
days demonstrated outside the parliament in Podgorica for proper severance pay.
Protest against the Minister of Education
The pro-Serbian opposition party SNP wants to dismiss Education Minister
Predrag Bosković, since the country's first-time pupils received their grades
printed only in Latin letters and not in Cyrillic, which the SNP considers
discriminatory. Montenegro has one official language (Montenegrin) but four more
"in official use" (Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian and Albanian, the first three
basically the same language as Montenegrin) and two alphabets (Latin and
Cyrillic). Since independence in 2006, the language and writing issues have
often led to trouble. (See also Population and Languages.)
Gang war in Kotor
Firing of rival drug gangs causes the Prosecutor to set up a special force to
deal with the violence in Kotor. The city is on UNESCO World Heritage List and
is important for the tourism industry in Montenegro. Over the past three months,
six armed drug-related clashes have taken place in Kotor, former residence of
"Balkan cocaine king" Darko Šarić, sentenced to 20 years in prison for drug
smuggling (see Serbia: July 2015).
Tips on journalist murder are rewarded
Interior Minister Goran Danilović announces a reward (later set at one
million euros) to anyone who can provide new information in the twelve-year-old
murder of journalist Duško Jovanović. Jovanović was editor-in-chief of the
opposition newspaper Dan and had been threatened to death several times before
he was murdered in 2004. An athlete received 19 years in prison for the murder
in 2015, but those behind this are still free. Interior Minister Danilović is
one of the new ministers who joined the government following a settlement
between the ruling party DPS and the opposition in May.
Government reform approved
By almost two-thirds majority, Parliament approves Prime Minister Milo
Ðukanović's proposal for government reform ahead of the "free and fair
elections" scheduled for October 2016. The new 21-man government includes
ministers from Ðukanović's DPS, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian minority parties
and three opposition parties in Parliament. (See also January 2016).
One step closer to NATO
Nato signs the protocol that makes Montenegro a member of the organization as
soon as the 28 member states have ratified it.
Corruption judgment against high politicians
In the ongoing comprehensive investigation of corruption and abuse of power
in the city of Budva (see August and December 2015),
the detained former President of the now disbanded Union of Serbia and
Montenegro, Svetozar Marović, reaches a settlement with the Special Court for
Organized Crime and Corruption for a shorter prison sentence (three years and
eight months) against telling him where the € 15 million that disappeared from
Budva's budget has taken the road. Marović is suspected to have been the leader
of organized crime in the city and several of his close relatives are already in
British follower Charles and his wife Camilla come to Montenegro as part of
an official tour of the Balkans. The purpose of the visit is to promote peace
and reconciliation in the region.
Agreements should block out migrants
Foreign and home ministers from nine Balkan countries, including Montenegro,
as well as Austria, enter into an agreement to coordinate efforts to limit
migrant flows with reference to security, integration challenges and resource
scarcity. Criticism comes from Greece, where many migrants are now getting
NATO negotiations begin
The formal talks will start in Brussels and the hope is that Stoltenberg will
conclude them during the year (see also December 2015).
Ðukanović manages a vote of confidence
Since Milo Ðukanović himself asked Parliament to hold a vote of confidence if
his government votes 42 of the total 81 members for continued confidence in the
disputed prime minister and his DPS-led government. (see Political system). This
happens after the small opposition party Positive Montenegro chooses to support
him against the promise of being included in the government. At the same time,
Ðukanović's long-standing gunman Ranko Krivokapić, the Speaker of Parliament and
party leader of the SDP coalition partner, is jumping off and voting against the
government. The vote is held after three days of lively debate, preceded by
large, popular demonstrations.