Mountains, desert and grassy rolling steppe
characterize Mongolia, sandwiched between Russia and
China in northeast Asia. Here, a nomadic herding culture
still dominates. During the Middle Ages, Mongol leaders
such as Djingi's Khan and his descendants ruled over
large parts of eastern Asia and Russia, but later their
kingdoms collapsed and Mongolia fell under Chinese rule.
From the 1920s until the dissolution of the Soviet Union
in 1991, the country was ruled by the Communist Party.
Since then, democratization and economic reform have
been carried out, but not without problems.
Brief profiles of Mongolia, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Mongolia is located in the heart of eastern
Asia, sandwiched between Russia in the north and China
in the east, south and west. The country, which is more
than three times the size of Sweden, is located on a
vast, sparsely populated high plateau. It was previously
sometimes called Outer Mongolia to distinguish it from
the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia.
In western Mongolia, the Altai Mountains rise to over
4,300 meters. In these hard-to-reach areas, the rare
snow leopard is still alive. To the east of Altaj lies a
more low-lying area, sprinkled with a large number of
lakes, some of them with salt water. Among these are the
country's largest lake Uvs nuur. The northern and
central parts of Mongolia are dominated by two wooded
mountain ranges, the Changaj and Chentij mountains in
whose forests there are moose, brown bear and lo.
Between the mountain ranges lies the fertile lowlands
surrounding the Selenge and Tuul rivers which have been
the country's cultural center throughout history. The
rivers in this area flow north towards Lake Baikal in
The most typical landscape for Mongolia is the
rolling steppe with its good pastures in the south and
east. In the southeast, the Gobi Desert from China
extends into Mongolia. To the east, the steppe landscape
rises to the Mongolian plateau.
On the steppe and in the semi-desert, ungulates like
the goat's gazelle and the now extremely rare
Przewalski's wild horse and various rodents live. One of
the latter, the steppe murmur, is originally the host
animal for the plague bacilli, which still affects
humans in Mongolia.
The country is often prone to earthquakes, especially
in the mountain areas. There are a large number of
extinguished volcanoes in the lowlands and the remains
of massive erosions on the steppes.
Mongolia has a distinct continental climate, with
large differences between winter and summer season.
Winters are long and cold, but mostly sunny. The country
has over 200 days of sunshine a year. Most of the
precipitation falls during the short, hot summer,
especially in July, when heavy rainfall often causes
flooding. The annual rainfall varies from less than 100
mm per year in the south to 350 mm in the mountains. The
steppe areas are sometimes haunted by sudden hurricanes.
FACTS - GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
1,566,500 km2 (2018)
Swedish + 7-9 hours
Adjacent country (s)
Capital with number of inhabitants
Ulan Bator (Ulaanbataar) 1,463,000 inhabitants 1
Other major cities
Erdenet 78,000, Darchan 75,000, Tjojbalsan 37,500
Chöjten (4374 m asl)
Uvs Nuur, Chövsgöl Nuur
Average Precipitation / month
Ulan Bator 73 mm (July), 1 mm (Jan)
Average / day
Ulan Bator 16 °C (July), -20 °C (Jan)
- Estimation 2017Sources
During the party congress, the MPRP changes its name to the Mongolian
People's Party (MPP).
Big demonstrations against corruption
Thousands of people are demonstrating in the capital, demanding that
Parliament be dissolved because promises were made not to fight corruption and
distribute profits from mineral resources fairly.
New leader for MPRP
Prime Minister Süchbaataryn Batbold becomes the new leader of the Mongolian
Revolutionary Party (MPRP).
Hard winter kills cattle
An unusually cold winter hits hard on livestock breeding. Nearly a fifth of
the livestock in the herds die. The UN is setting up a relief program to support
shepherds and others affected.
Death sentences turn into prison
President Elbegdorzh converts all death sentences to 30 years in prison.