During colonial times, Ghana was known as the
Gold Coast. Gold is still one of the country's most
important export goods besides oil and cocoa. Ghana
became independent from Britain in 1957. Repeated
military coups and unstable regimes depleted the
economy, but following reforms in the early 1990s, Ghana
has enjoyed steady growth and become one of Africa's
most stable democracies.
Brief profiles of Ghana, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Ghana is located on the Gulf of Guinea in
West Africa and is just over half the size of Sweden.
The land is lowland, half of the land area rises less
than 150 meters above sea level.
Along the sandy coast there are grasslands, bush
vegetation and cultivated land. From the western part of
the coast, rainforests extend into the country. The
capital of Accra is further east on the coast. Towards
the border with Togo in the east, mountains rise with
peaks up to 900 meters in height. Northern Ghana is
dominated by the Nakambe River (formerly the White
Volta), around which the hilly savannah spreads.
The long narrow Lake Volta extends through more than
half the country and is one of the largest artificial
lakes in the world. It was formed in 1965 through a dam
of the Volta River about ten miles north of Accra. Both
Nakambe and Mouhoun (formerly the Black Volta) flow into
Tropical climate prevails throughout Ghana. In the
coastal country, where southwesterly monsoon winds blow
in from the Atlantic, it is hot and humid all year
round. It is the hottest and most humid in March and
There is a lot of rainfall on the coast, especially
in the rainforest area in the southwest. The rainy
periods fall in March – July and September – October.
On the savannas in the north, the climate is affected
by the harmattan - desert winds from the northeast - and
the variations in temperature and precipitation are
greater than in the south. From October to March it is
dry season, while rain falls from April to September.
However, the rainfall is much less in northern than in
FACTS - GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
238,537 km2 (2018)
Swedish –1 hour
Adjacent country (s)
Togo, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast
Capital with number of residents
Accra 2,290,000 (2012 estimate)
Other major cities
Kumasi 1,990,000, Tamale 538,000, Sekondi-Takoradi
405,000 (2012 estimate)
Mt Afadjato (885 m asl)
Mouhoun/Black Volta, Nakambe/Vita Volta
Lake Volta (artificial)
Accra 178 mm (June), 15 mm (Jan)
Accra 24 °C (Aug), 23 °C (March)
The Minister of Energy is appointed
President Mahama establishes a new ministerial post responsible for energy.
The assignment goes to Kwabena Donkor, whose main task will be to deal with the
constant electricity outages in the country.
Akufo-Addo is running for president again
The opposition party NPP elects Nana Akufo-Addo as its candidate in the
November 2016 presidential election.
Oil field boundary dispute
Ghana calls for a UN tribunal to mediate in a border dispute with Ivory Coast
over a sea area near the oil field that Ghana is claiming. A British company is
licensed to extract oil in the area. Ten meetings between the governments of the
two neighboring countries have failed to resolve the dispute. The UN mediation
is expected to last for about three years.
Ghana halves poverty
Although Ghana has financial problems (for example, the currency cedi has
lost 37 percent of its value in relation to the dollar since the beginning of
the year), the country is able to meet the UN Millennium Development Goals on
halved poverty by 2015. While 51.7 percent of its inhabitants lived in poverty
In 1992, the proportion of poor people is down 24.2 percent according to Ghana's
statistical authority. The national poverty line for a resident is living at
less than about SEK 20 a day, almost twice as much as in UN statistics.
Ministers are replaced
President Mahama is making his first government reform. The ministers
responsible for defense, home affairs, agriculture, trade and sports are
replaced. No explanation is given for the changes.