Chad is located in North Central Africa and
lacks coast. A number of military coup regimes have over
the years replaced each other in power and have been
under constant pressure from armed insurgency movements.
Hundreds of thousands of people live in refugee camps.
During the 2010 century, the country was also plagued by
the Islamist movement Boko Haram. Chad contains oil and
good deposits of other minerals.
Brief profiles of Chad, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Chad is located in the area where the
southern border of the Sahara desert turns into steppe
and further south into the savanna. The land is three
times as large as Sweden.
Chad lacks the coast and is surrounded by mountains
in all directions, except in the west. The volcanic rock
massif Tibesti in the north reaches over 3,000 meters in
The country's most fertile soils are in the
southwest, where wildlife is also richest. The Chari and
Logone rivers unite at the capital N'Djamena and then
flow into Lake Chad, which has decreased dramatically in
size due to decreasing rainfall.
The desert landscape in northern Chad rarely receives
rain and can have minus degrees in the mountains at
night. The central steppe receives 250–500 mm of
precipitation annually. In the south, where the climate
is tropical, more rain falls. Agriculture can be carried
out there. In the capital N'Djamena, the heat can be
extremely depressing. In the southwest, tropical
deciduous forest grows.
FACTS - GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
1 284 000 km2 (2018)
Adjacent country (s)
Libya, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon,
Capital with number of inhabitants
Ndjamena 1.26 million (estimate 2015)
Other major cities
Moundou 141,000, Sarh 107,000, Abéché 78,000
Emi Koussi (3,415 m asl)
Average Precipitation / year
N'Djamena 744 mm
Average / day
N'Djamena 24 °C (Jan), 28 °C (July)
UN mission leaves the country
The UN mission Minurcat formally completes its mission in Chad (see
Parts of the UFR put down their weapons
Parts of the rebel alliance of the Resistance Force Union (UFR) are putting
down their weapons in exchange for a promise of amnesty. However, a fraction of
the UFR opposes the settlement with the government and relocates its bases to
the neighboring Central African Republic. UFR suffered heavy losses in 2009 and
lost around 80 percent of its warriors.
The parliamentary elections are postponed
The government and the opposition agree to postpone the parliamentary
elections until February 2011 in order to bring all the preparations required.
Chad fails to arrest Sudan's president
Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir visits Chad who fails to arrest him
despite al-Bashir being called by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for
crimes against humanity and Chad belongs to the countries that have joined the
Sudan is running out of rebel movements
Sudan asks leaders of the most important Chadian rebel movements to leave
Parliament is being expanded
A new law is enacted which will increase the number of seats in Parliament
from 155 to 188. The aim is to smooth out previous imbalances between different
UN mission is taken home from Chad
The UN Security Council decides that the UN mission Minurcat (United Nations
Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad) should be withdrawn in two
steps and that all personnel should be out of Chad on December 31, 2010.
Many dead in fighting in the east
The government states that over 100 rebels have been killed in two war
outbreaks in eastern Chad. At the same time, the rebels claim that the
government side has suffered heavy losses.
Bad harvests cause food shortages
Reports say that nearly two million Chadians have been suffering from food
shortages due to poor harvests.
The government is leaving
Abbas resigns due to corruption scandals revealed in October 2009. Emmanuel
Nadingar becomes new head of government. Nearly half of the ministers are
Relations with Sudan are improving
Chad and Sudan enter into an agreement to normalize relations, open the
border and establish a common border control force. For the first time in years,
an agreement between Chad and Sudan will have an effect (compare Foreign Policy
and Defense); Border surveillance is tightened and the two countries cease their
support to neighboring rebels.
The parliamentary elections are postponed
The Election Commission announces that the parliamentary elections that would
have been held in 2009 have now been postponed further, until November 2010.