Bosnia and Herzegovina is located on the Balkan
Peninsula, in the central parts of former Yugoslavia. A
bloody civil war broke out in 1992 in connection with
the collapse of the Yugoslav Federation. The peace
agreement signed in 1995 put an end to the fighting but
has helped to freeze the ethnic contradictions. The
country consists of two autonomous parts: Republic of
Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Brief profiles of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including geography, history, politics, economics as well as common acronyms about this country.
Geography and climate
Bosnia and Herzegovina is on the surface
slightly larger than Denmark. The country is reminiscent
of a triangle and is enclosed by Croatia on two sides,
the border is broken only by a two mile stretch of coast
towards the Adriatic. To the east lie Serbia and
Montenegro. Bosnia consists mainly of mountains.
The mountains are mostly covered by forest and in
their places the peaks reach over 2,000 meters. Less
than a tenth of the surface is less than 150 meters
above sea level. In the north, along the Sava border,
are fertile plains.
The capital Sarajevo is located in the central part
of the country on the river Bosna, which named one of
the country's two historic units: the province of
Bosnia. The second historic unit, Hercegovina, is
located to the south and accounts for one fifth of the
country's area. The name Bosnia is often used as the
term throughout the country.
Since the end of the civil war in 1995, Bosnia has
been divided into two so-called political entities: the
Bosnian-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(hereafter referred to as the Federation) and the
Republika Srpska (Serbian Republic) dominated by Serbs.
The federation, which includes the western and
central parts (see map), makes up 51 percent of the
country's area. The Federation's capital Sarajevo is
also the capital of the country as a whole. Sarajevo's
eastern suburbs are located in Republika Srpska and form
its own city, East Sarajevo (Istočno Sarajevo, formerly
called Srpsko Sarajevo, Serbian Sarajevo). Banja Luka
serves as the capital of the Republic of Srpska.
Most of Bosnia has an inland climate with hot summers
and cold winters. In the areas near the short coast in
the south, the Mediterranean climate prevails.
FACTS - GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
51,564 km2 (2018)
Adjacent country (s)
Croatia, Serbia and Montrenegro
Capital with number of inhabitants
Sarajevo 301,000 (Estimated 2012)
Other major cities
Banja Luka 238,000, Tuzla 100,000, Zenica 93,000,
Mostar 68,000 (2012 estimate)
Maglić (2,386 m asl)
Sava, Bosna, Drina, Una
Average Precipitation / month
Sarajevo 43 mm (Jan), 103 mm (Sept)
Average / day
Sarajevo 1 °C (Jan), 21 °C (Jul-Aug)
Ex-general sentenced to life
Bosnian Serb former general Zdravko Tolimir is sentenced by the UN General
Court in The Hague to life imprisonment for participation in the 1995 genocide
Teachers and policemen protest against wage cuts
Thousands of teachers and police officers take part in a protest
demonstration in Republika Srpska, the first of its kind in several years. Their
average monthly salaries correspond to SEK 3,300-4,600, and the government has
just submitted a austerity budget for 2013 with ten percent pay cuts for public
New party in coalition government
Fahrudin Radončić is appointed new Minister of Security and his party, the
Bosnian party SBB, thus takes office in the government. The second of the SDA's
previous ministerial posts accrues to the SDP, through Zekerijah Osmić, who
becomes Minister of Defense. SBB also receives a Deputy Minister's post which
SDA was also forced to leave.
SDA ministers are excluded
The SDP manages to get a majority of other parties in the government to vote
for the exclusion of the two ministers of the SDA.
The IMF gives a new loan
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is ready for a new loan of EUR 405
million over two years. The money is intended for the governments of the two
entities, and is paid out in installments, provided that cuts are made in the
extensive public expenditure.
Mass burial in Srebrenica
Many people participate in a mass burial of about 500 newly identified
victims of the Srebrenica massacre in 1995.
Disagreement in government
Parliament fails to approve the budget, after the SDA withdrew its support
for draft constitutional amendments that the members of the Presidency should be
elected by the parliaments of the country's two units, rather than directly
elected. The SDP breaks its cooperation with the SDA, and is trying to get the
party's ministers to leave the government. However, they refuse.
Presidential council member leaves SDP
Željko Komšić, who is the Croatian member of the Presidential Council, leaves
all his missions in the Social Democratic SDP. It is in protest that the party
is not addressing the country's problems, such as corruption. In July he leaves
the party completely, and then refers to the party proposing constitutional
amendments without consulting him.
New government takes office
Bosnia's new government can finally be approved by Parliament, 16 months
after the election. In January, Parliament approved the Presidency's proposal to
Prime Minister Croat Vjekoslav Bevanda, who is a member of HDZ-BiH and outgoing
Minister of Finance of the Federation. The new government under Bevanda's
leadership includes two former prime ministers: Zlatko Lagumdžija (SDP) who will
become Foreign Minister and Nikola Špirić (SNSD) who will become Finance